Vyacheslav Dyatlov

### Dyatlov, Vyacheslav Lukich:

Chief Scientific Fellow, S. L. Sobolev Institute of Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Division ; Doctor of Technical Sciences ; e-mail:vdyatlov@math.nsc.ru ; Fax:007 383 2 332598 ; 630090 Novosibirsk

## Series “PROBLEMS OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS PHYSICAL VACUUM”, from word file ‘VDyatlov_book1a.DOC’

Polarization Model of the Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum, Novosibirsk, Institute of Mathematics Publishing House, 1998

UDC 538.3 + 551.515 ; BBK 22.313 ; D 998 ; Dyatlov, V. L. ; Polarization Model of the Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum.Novosibirsk:Institute of Mathematics Publishing House [Izdatel’stvo Instituta matematiki], 1998.184 pp.(Series “Problemy neodnorodnogo fizicheskogo vakuuma” [“Problems of the Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum”]).
ISBN 5-86134-057-9.

The book sets forth and substantiates a polarization model for the inhomogeneous physical vacuum.According to the model which is developed, the physical vacuum is a heterogeneous polarization medium which is present everywhere and consists of a homogeneous – absolute – physical vacuum and two modified – matter and antimatter – physical vacuums.The local formations of a modified vacuum, which the author calls vacuum domains, float within the unbounded absolute physical vacuum medium.

The properties of the absolute physical vacuum are described by nonconjugate systems of Maxwell electrodynamics and Heaviside gravidynamic equations.The Heaviside equations are reduced to the standard form of Maxwell equations; i.e., by the introduction of two inductions, gravity and spin.

The properties of the matter and antimatter physical vacuums are alsodescribed by conjugate Maxwell and Heaviside vacuum equations.These equations are linked due to the linear dependence of electrical and magnetic inductions not only on like electric and magnetic fields but also by gravity and spin fields, as well as the dependence of gravity and spin inductions not only on like fields but also on their interactions with electrical and magnetic fields.

Matter is represented in the model by equations from the electronic theory of matter and the theory of continuum mechanics.In the analysis of the model developed, the physical properties of vacuum domains are compared to anomalous phenomena, such as ball lighting, UFOs, tornadoes, poltergeists, etc.The satisfactory coincidence of the physical properties of vacuum domains and the manifestations of the phenomena in question make it possible to confirm the viability of the model.

Science Editor: Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences G. A. Kirpichnikov. Published in the author’s wording.

# Table of Contents

– 1. The Problem of the Non-Homogeneous Physical Vacuum … 9
1.1.Anomalous phenomena and the non-homogeneous physical vacuum … 9
1.2. Basic physical properties of vacuum domains and a comparison of the domains to the physical properties of anomalous phenomena … 11
1.3. Physical vacuum – not a void … 18
1.4. Physical vacuum – polarization medium … 20
1.5. Non-homogeneous physical vacuum and vacuum domains … 22

– 2. Polarization model of the non-homogenous physical vacuum … 26
2.1.Models of the physical vacuum … 26
2.1.1.Need for a non-homogeneous physical vacuum model … 26
2.1.2.Classical models of the ether … 28
2.1.3.Field conception of the physical vacuum … 29
2.1.4.Akimov model of polarization states of the physical vacuum … 30
2.1.5.Terletskiy particle-antiparticle quadrigues … 30
2.1.6.Akimov’s fiton and Terletskiy’s particle-antiparticle quadrigue … 31
2.1.7.Polarization-field conception of the physical vacuum … 32
2.2.Model of non-homogeneous physical vacuum from Terletskiy quadrigues and dyads … 32
2.2.1.Basic properties of the physical vacuum of Terletskiy quadrigues … 32
2.2.2 Three physical vacuums.Non-homogeneous physical vacuum of Terletskiy quadrigues and dyads … 33
2.2.3. Basic properties of physical vacuums of matter and antimatter … 34
2.2.4. Circulation of matter in the Universe … 35
2.3. Equations of a macroscopic model of combined electrogravidynamics … 36
2.3.1. Equations of Maxwell and Heaviside in the polarization-field conception of the physical vacuum … 36
2.3.2. Equations of Maxwell and Heaviside as a combination of laws of matter and the physical vacuum … 40
2.3.3. Polarizations of the physical vacuum as a function of fields … 45
2.3.4. Problems of combined electrogravidynamics … 47
2.4. Equations of a macroscopic model of combined electrogravidynamics for practical calculations … 47
2.4.1. General equations of combined electrogravidynamics … 47
2.4.2.Estimates of the values of matter permeability and conductivity factors … 49
2.5 Equations of mechanics in macroscopic model of non-homogeneous physical vacuum … 54
2.5.1. Equations of the motion of a body in the absolute physical vacuum … 54
2.5.2. Equations of motion of vacuum domains in the absolute physical vacuum … 57
2.5.3. Equations of hydromechanics in the model of a non-homogeneous physical vacuum … 58
2.5.4. Concerning equations of mechanics for a region of space inside a vacuum domain … 59

– 3. Investigation of the physical properties of vacuum domains based on the non-homogeneous physical vacuum model … 60
3.1. Basic trends in research on physical properties of vacuum domains … 60
3.1.1. Comparison of physical properties of vacuum domains and self-luminous formations (bodies) … 60
3.1.2. Circulation of energy and development of gravispin waves in the Universe … 62
3.1.3. Problem of weak explosions of vacuum domains … 65
3.1.4. Vacuum domains in the fields of the Earth … 67
3.1.5 The relationship of vacuum domains to certain disasters … 68
3.1.6 The role of vacuum domains in the change in the dimensions and mass of the Earth … 69
3.1.7 Strong explosions of vacuum domains … 70
3.2 Statics.Vacuum domain in external slowly changing electrical, gravitational, magnetic and spin fields … 73
3.2.1 Equations of electrogravistatics and magnetospin statics … 73
3.2.2 A spherical vacuum domain in external homogeneous electrical and gravitational fields … 74
3.2.3. A spherical vacuum domain in external magnetic and spin fields … 77
Fields at the surface of the Earth … 81
3.2.6. The electrogravitational depolarization of a vacuum domain … 84
3.2.7. The relationship of spin polarization to the tensor of spin mechanical stresses … 88
3.3. Quasistatics.Field interaction of vacuum domains with substance … 93
3.3.1. Problems of quasistatics in the model of the non-homogeneous physical vacuum … 93
3.3.2. A vacuum domain in an electrically conductive medium. Contact explosions of large vacuum domains … 94
3.3.3. The Earth’s electrical field … 98
3.4. Waves. Transformations of the energy of gravispin waves into other types of energy … 100
3.4.1. Problems of the electrogravimechanical transformation of energy … 100
3.4.2. The transformation of the energy of gravispin waves into mechanical energy in the absolute physical vacuum … 101
3.4.3. The transformation of heat into energy of gravispin waves in the absolute physical vacuum … 103
3.4.4. The reversible transformation of the energy of electromagnetic waves into energy of gravispin waves inside the body of a vacuum domain … 105

Conclusion … 110
References … 112

# Author’s Foreword

At the end of 1988, Academy of Sciences Member Mikhail Mikhailovich Lavrentyev suggested that I work on the problem of anomalous phenomena, the experiments of A. N. Kozyrev in particular.At that time, my scientific interests were, to all practical appearances, very remote from such phenomena.Before M. M. Lavrentyev’s suggestion, for a long time I had been creating physical and mathematical models of new computer hardware, microelectronics and micromechanics components based on the use of magnetic and dielectric materials (ferrites, Permalloys, dielectrics, ferrielectrics).It is convenient to identify such substances by a single term: polarization media.

The study of the literature in the field of anomalous phenomena was stunning in terms of the abundance, variety and frequently low scientific quality of available publications.I developed the firm conviction, however, that such physical phenomena simply did not fit within the framework of modern physics.Later on, I came to the realization that many of the paranormal phenomena which are outwardly different nevertheless have the same scientific and physical basis.

In delving deeper into the study of anomalous phenomena literature, I was trying to accomplish two things.This was first to find satisfactory and sufficient ideas in the field of physical and mathematical models and second, to find a group phenomena with a sufficiently comprehensive and systematic description of their physical properties.Not only could a model of certain anomalous phenomena be created in this way but an experimental basis would be compiled that would substantiate and allow the further development of such a model.

The ideas of A. Ye. Akimov and G. I. Shipov, who introduced a fundamentally new concept into physical vacuum theory, proved extremely similar with respect to anomalous phenomena.A phrase from Akimov – “physical vacuum polarization states” – made a particularly effective impression upon me and seemed familiar from a long time ago.And then memories from the years of post-graduate study in the late fifties at the department of theoretical bases of electrical engineering (TBE department) of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute started to come back to me.

During those years, the TBE department was headed by Konstantin Mikhaylovich Polivanov, a successor to Karl Adolfovich Krug, the founder of the Soviet school of theoretical electrical engineering.Professor K. M. Polivanov made a great contribution to the electromagnetic theory of polarization media.He became my Teacher and Mentor in the true sense of the word.I was recommended to the TBE at MPI by Professor Valentin Yevgenyevich Bogolyubov, who knew and deeply respected “Father Pavel” – Pavel Aleksandrovich Florenskiy, the great electrical engineer and theorist and a great philosopher.I might mention that later, in his old age, V. Ye. Bogolyubov became a monk at the Zagorsk Monastery.

In the department, where the theory of polarization media was known and understood in depth, many of the professors and instructors understood the physical vacuum in just this way: as a polarization medium.However, they talked about this matter only within their own narrow circle.The ether and everything associated with it fell under an extremely strict official ban at that time.

I once asked Polivanov the question:“Why do we take the member m0H into consideration in the induction expression B = m0H + m0M inside a ferromagnetic substance?This, after all, is a direct acknowledgement of the ether as a ubiquitous polarization medium.”K. M. (as Professor Polivanov was known in the department) gave me a strange look and answered:“Think about it yourself.”I understood that K. M. approved of my question.

Florenskiy went considerably further.In his books Mnimosti v geometrii.Raswhireniye oblasti dvukhmernykh obrazov v geometrii [Virtual Images in Geometry.Expanding the Field of Two-Dimensional Images in Geometry], 1922 [1], and Dielektriki i ikh tekhnicheskoye primeneniye [Dielectrics and Their Technical Uses], 1924, he wrote about the large role of boundary surfaces in space-time, i.e., in the physical vacuum.We shall note that the polarization media on the whole are neutral, but when they are represented in the form of enclosed bodies, they provide an example of the major role not only of the volumes but of the surfaces of bodies in physics.So-called bound charges can appear on the surfaces of bodies of polarized matter, sometimes causing strong fields.Something else entirely different should be noted in connection with Florenskiy’s books mentioned above – it was just these books that brought Pavel Aleksandrovich to an untimely end in 1937.

After reading Akimov’s article [2], I borrowed the idea from him of an electro-gravity connection in a physical vacuum and, after expressing it in the language of mathematics, soon had written an article about it which was published in 1995 [2. 4].I shall note here that articles with similar titles and results were rejected twice by the journal Doklady Akademii Nauk, despite recommendations from Academy member M. M. Lavrentyev.The system of equations of electrogravidynamics in this model has only two parameters characterizing the electro-gravity relationships in the physical vacuum medium, which makes it possible to represent it as a heterogeneous, varied polarized medium.

The most important result of my article was the description of the mechanism – strange at first glance – of cold self-luminescence of some empty volume of space, which is characteristic of many anomalous phenomena.Such self-luminescence is explained in this article by the transformation of the energy of gravity waves in the physical vacuum into the energy of electromagnetic waves.

Doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences Aleskey Nikolayevich Dmitriyev has described the physical properties and special features of a large group of anomalous phenomena quite comprehensively and systematically [5].For many years he conducted field instrument measurements and studies in the Altai mountains on objects he called natural glowing formations.The characteristic feature of such formations is that they are observed in the form of transparent glowing bodies of various sizes and shapes but, as a rule, have an ellipsoid form.Dmitriyev devoted attention to the fact that the very same kind of translucent glowing bodies are present in ball lightning, tornadoes, poltergeists and even UFOs.A common property of this kind made it possible to hypothesize that all these phenomena are varieties of the same physical phenomenon, which has a great variety of manifestations.

After becoming acquainted with the results of Dmitriyev’s studies and thanks to numerous personal conversations with him, I began to understand that one can construct physical and mathematical models of natural glowing formations based on the macroscopic equations of electrogravidynamics [6].It rarely happens, by the way, that the results of independent theoretical and phenomenological research coincide so closely.In this situation, it was sufficiently clear to define the parameters of the electro-gravity relationship in the equations of combined electrogravidynamics, after isolating some enclosed region in an unbounded space.Here, the equations of electrogravidynamics in the outer region of the space break down into independent equations of electrodynamics and gravidynamics, in order to create the model.This meant that the parameters of the electrogravity relationship had to be set equal to zero for the outer region and not equal to zero for the inner region of the space.

In this problem in question, the isolation of a closed region was equivalent to the formation of some local body located in an unbounded space.Parameters of the electrogravity relationship equal and not equal to zero actually characterized two different vacuum polarization media.A body with parameters not equal to zero, hence, was called a vacuum domain.Such vacuum domains were identical to the translucent glowing bodies of the anomalous phenomena indicated above.

Physical and mathematical models of natural glowing formations have combined and are referred to as a polarization model of a non-homogeneous physical vacuum.It was assumed that the model is also applicable to situations of weak self-luminescence of vacuum domains.In this connection, once again, one must recall Florenskiy’s surface in a physical vacuum.In introducing the concept of the vacuum domain, we also automatically introduce the concept of the domain surface, i.e., a surface in a physical vacuum which separates two different polarized media.The basic physical properties of vacuum domains, which coincide with the physical properties of the bodies of natural glowing formations, have proved to be related to just these vacuum domain surfaces, which can be called Florenskiy surfaces.

The physical analysis of the polarization model of a non-homogenous physical vacuum required intensive work, the results of which are presented in part in this book.The author did not have sufficient versatility and scientific competence in all of these cases for the complete analysis and development of the model; this problem is the result of the possible extensions of the model itself.These possibilities later attracted the attention of great specialists from various fields of scientific and technical knowledge.

Professor V. I. Merkulov, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, has demonstrated [7] the possibility of explaining various previously incomprehensible phenomena based upon equations of continuum mechanics and the equations used in this model:UFOs of the complex type and beaded ball lightning, many of the properties of tornadoes and tropical hurricanes, electromagnetic waves accompanying acoustic waves in the Earth, etc.He also explained how it is necessary to understand the Einstein-de Haas effect in the theory of continuum mechanics which was developed by Academy member L. I. Sedov.

Professor Yu. G. Kosarev, doctor of technical sciences, provided major methodological assistance and in particular, demonstrated the philosophical significance of the model, on the example of Florenskiy’s ideas.

Professor V. R. Kireytov, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, established the relativistic nature of the equations of the model and confirmed the reversible transformation of gravity waves into electromagnetic waves in vacuum domains.

And now for my greatest pleasure.In the understanding that this book would have been impossible without the support of Academy member M. M. Lavrentyev, I wish to express the very greatest appreciation to him.

I am a confirmed advocate of physical and mathematical models based on experimental studies of specific physical objects.Doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences A. N. Dmitriyev pointed out such an object to me in the non-homogeneous physical vacuum model, hence I wish to express my deep gratitude to him for this and for his exceptionally interesting collaboration.I am sincerely grateful to Professor V. I. Merkulov, Professor Yu. G. Kosarev, Professor V. R. Kireytov, Professor O. D. Dzhefimenko (Jefimenko, USA), Candidate of physical and mathematical sciences E. G. Kostsov, Candidate of physical and mathematical sciences G. A. Kirpichnikov, and many other physicists, geophysicists and mathematicians of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Moscow and St. Petersburg, as well as to scientists from Italy, Germany and the United States, for their helpful discussions of many of the issues of this study.I would like to express my deep gratitude separately to my assistant Svetlana Alekseyevna Burkovskaya for the difficult and tedious work involved in dealing with the manuscript and its numerous revisions.

Novosibirsk, Russian Academy of Sciences ; Siberian Division ; November 1998 ; Doctor of technical sciences V. L. Dyatlov

# 1. The Problem of the Non-Homogeneous Physical Vacuum

1.1.Anomalous phenomena and the non-homogeneous physical vacuum

Throughout the many centuries of the history of civilization, mankind has continually encountered unexplanable or anomalous phenomenon.These include unidentified flying objects (UFOs), ball lightning, tornadoes, poltergeists, explosions in the atmosphere as well as on the Earth’s surface that are not of manmade origin.Three basic approaches have been developed to perceive and study such phenomena.We shall provisionally refer to them as mythological, laboratory, and phenomenological events.

Since ancient times the mythological approach has served as an aid explain folklore and legends.The idea that UFOs are alien spacecraft has become widespread in our own time.In the presence of this mindset, other such phenomena also seems to be the creations developed by alien civilizations.

The laboratory or traditional approach is based on the idea that all phenomena emerge as natural processes that are consequences of known physical laws of nature.Such an approach assumes that for detailed description and explanation of any new physical phenomenon, it must be recreated under laboratory or specifically controlled conditions.The laboratory approach has proven itself in a multitude of cases and is considered fundamental in modern physics.It is not surprising, therefore, that it has also been used for the explanation of the phenomena of ball lightning, tornadoes, etc.However, this tested method did not work in the cases under investigation.There are already more than 100 known physical models for predicting ball lightning phenomena [8] and a plethora of tornado models [9], but none of these are generally accepted.Analogs of ball lightning have been obtained in high-frequency discharges in the presence of combustible or dispersed materials [10-12], but they possess only a small fraction of the physical properties of natural ball lightning.The lack of success in physical modeling of the anomalous phenomena in question serves as the main argument for the self-affirmation of the advocates of the mythological approach.

The phenomenological approach to the study of anomalous phenomena also has emerged due to the lack of success of the traditional physical approach.Many scientists have tried to understand that mankind is encountering some kind of new and unknown physical reality in the form of UFOs, ball lightning, tornadoes, poltergeists, etc.Objective, painstaking description of the entire combination of physical properties and features of these phenomena, without prejudice, could, of course serve as the first step in comprehending this new reality.However, there is a major obstacle in this path:all the phenomena listed above occur rarely and randomly.So it seems, in any case, to the first researchers working on the phenomena about the randomness and rarity of these events in question.

At first a solution to the problem of describing the physical properties and features of anomalous phenomena was seen in statistical processing of the extensive information on sightings of such phenomena which had been published in many periodicals.It was assumed that various subjective statistical event moments in the respective publications could be gathered during the processing of this information.Thus appeared the first physical descriptions of the physical properties and features of UFOs [13-15], ball lightning [11], tornadoes [9, 21], poltergeists [22, 23], etc.

The characteristics of the physical properties and features of the anomalous phenomena in question which were obtained in this way reflected only those properties which could be obtained as a result of observation with the naked eye; i.e., they were known to be incomplete.These descriptions, however, reflected such strange physical characteristics of the anomalous phenomena as levitation and penetration of solid matter, not to mention intense rotation of a gas media within the active region not only of tornadoes but of ball lightning as well [5, 17-20].

Meanwhile, the less than serious attitude of scientists toward these first description of the physical properties of this anomalous phenomena led to negative results.The advocates of the traditional approach to physical phenomena did not take into consideration the properties of these phenomena which they considered questionable, but they also avoided those properties which were not in doubt among the advocates of the phenomenological approach, such as rotation of the objects under investigation.Thus, there appeared unsound physical models of ball lightning, etc., which were published in the most prestigious journals [10, 12].Hence the solution of an extremely important and interesting problem of physics was delayed for many years.The scientific authority of a particular scientist or journal in this case stood in the way of scientific progress.

The situation in the field of the phenomenological study of anomalous phenomena changed fundamentally from the time (the seventies) when the military recognized that UFOs are a strong factor in the destruction of military hardware which included primarily aircraft, missiles and satellites, that came into contact with the UFOs; and the creation of radar interference in the form of false targets and the disruption of radio communications [13].Geologists and geophysicists were recruited to study UFOs, which made possible several important discoveries [5].The frequency of UFO sightings shows a strong dependence on the geological and geophysical features of the Earth (UFOs and ball lightning appear mainly at the locations of fractures in the Earth’s crust) and the physical state of the Sun (the frequency of UFOs, ball lightning and tornadoes increases substantially during years of high Solar activity).Locations on the Earth’s surface with a significant increase in the frequency of UFOs, which at first were called plasmoids [5], were identified, and geophysical expeditions to these sites were organized.The UFOs and rocks of the Earth’s surface at the points of contact of UFOs with the Earth were subjected to direct physical study with instruments [5, 24-29].Thus, the phenomenological instrumental investigations of the anomalous phenomena listed above were started which made it possible to deepen and broaden substantially the description of the physical properties of the glowing objects of these phenomena.

Of the physical properties of anomalous phenomena, one property was attracting more and more attention from researchers: a translucent, glowing body with a spherical, ellipsoid, cylindrical or conical shape was always present in the active regions of UFOs, ball lightning, tornadoes, poltergeists and non-manmade explosions.At night this body in many cases (UFOs, poltergeists, ball lightning, tornadoes) was clearly visible with the naked eye.The body showed up considerably more clearly, however, on videotapes and sensitive photographic film.It was this glowing body that prompted Dmitriyev [5] to call objects of the anomalous phenomena in question natural glowing formations (NGF).It was established that these bodies can penetrate into solid matter and pass through it (UFOs, ball lightning, poltergeists).

Sightings of the luminescence of bodies of UFOs, ball lightning, tornadoes, poltergeists, etc., led to an understanding that all of these effects, which seemed different at first glance, are varieties of the same phenomenon, which has a number of distinguishing features in its appearance and development in the form of the anomalies indicated above.Attention was also devoted [5] to other coinciding physical properties in the phenomena in question, especially penetration of solid matter and levitation.

These features of anomalous phenomena cannot be explained by modern physics.However, we do know of many ideas in the history of physics that are rejected even by modern physics.Some of these ideas should be reexamined on the basis of new physical knowledge.Such ideas include the idea of the ether – the ubiquitous medium which fills space.In the nineteenth century, the ether was understood to be a mechanical medium, and this representation of the ether proved to be unsound.Hence at the beginning of the twentieth century, the concept of the ether was generally excluded from physics.

In the middle of the twentieth century, research on material polarization media – ferromagnetics and ferrielectrics, in particular – underwent extensive development.The work of Polivanov and his students [30-34] has a significant contribution to the study of polarized media.These works formed the basis for the physical and mathematical macroscopic polarization model developed in this book for the non-homogeneous physical vacuum understood as a ubiquitous non-homogeneous polarization medium, but not a mechanical medium, which fills space [3, 4, 6].

According to the polarization model of the non-homogeneous physical vacuum, the translucent, self-luminescent body in the anomalous phenomena considered is some kind of modified physical vacuum in the medium of the absolute physical vacuum.Due to the features of the polarization properties of the vacuums outside and inside the glowing body, such a formation is called a vacuum domain.Vacuum domains supplement the range of known objects in the universe such as galaxies, nebulae, stars, planets, moons, comets, meteors and meteorites, etc.They play their own special role within the universe, which will be examined in this book.

1.2. Basic physical properties of vacuum domains and a comparison of the domains to the physical properties of anomalous phenomena

Vacuum domains, which are local formations of a non-homogeneous physical vacuum, are transformers of gravitational energy into electromagnetic energy and the reverse and of both these types of energy into mechanical and thermal energy.

Vacuum domains, as a kind of confined bodies, have volume and a corresponding boundary surface.The equations of the non-homogeneous physical vacuum model together with the equations of the electronic theory of matter and continuum mechanics, as well as the conditions on the surfaces of the vacuum domains and at infinity, make it possible to formulate typical boundary-value problems of mathematical physics.The solution of such problems can help us obtain theoretical physical properties of the vacuum domains in any media and fields, such as those of the Earth.This book presents some solutions of those problems which, I submit, give the basic properties of vacuum domains on Earth.These properties are as follows:

1. Penetration into matter or passage through matter in any of its phase states:plasma, gas, liquid and solid.
2. Self-luminescence, emission of electromagnetic waves in a broad frequency spectrum, and absorption of electromagnetic waves.
3. The presence of their own electrical, magnetic and gravity fields inside and outside the vacuum domains.
4. Intense rotation of the gas inside the vacuum domains with a change in the magnetic and spin fields of the Earth.
5. Two types of explosions with the preservation of the vacuum domains:explosions as a result of an electrical discharge inside the vacuum domains, and contact explosions as the vacuum domains penetrate from the gas of the atmosphere into the electrically conductive rock of the Earth, as well as in passage through the Earth’s ionosphere.

The polarization model of vacuum domains which is presented below makes it possible to establish the laws of movement of the domains, especially as point bodies in the Earth’s fields.It is demonstrated, in particular that the mechanical equilibrium of the vacuum domains is disrupted after the explosions indicated above, hence an abrupt change in their movement must occur without fail.

It follows from the model that a third type of explosion is possible, associated with the annihilation of two types of vacuum domains.These very powerful explosions cause an intense release of high-energy photons.They can be called photon explosions.A characteristic example of such cataclysms is the Tunguska “meteorite” explosion [13, 35].

It follows naturally from the model that vacuum domains can move deep in the Earth, causing mechanical stresses and injecting photons into the Earth’s rock.The mechanical stresses can cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, while the photons can cause chemical reactions which would normally be impossible inside the Earth without the vacuum domains.

Many of the natural anomalous physical phenomena which are being observed and studied with instruments at present are characterized, at least partially, by the external manifestations listed above.Among them we can distinguish ten phenomena:ball lightning; natural glowing formations or cold plasmoids; poltergeists; tornadoes; angels; cosmic ice; ionospheric and atmospheric explosions; lithosphere explosion pipes; sprites; elves; jets; luminescence in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Table 1 presents the physical properties of the anomalous phenomena listed above and the characteristic physical properties of vacuum domains indicated above.Crosses are placed in the respective columns of the table only where the anomalous phenomenon in question is conclusively known to possess the respective physical property according to published data or communications of specialists.

A brief examination of the physical properties of each of the anomalous phenomena listed above follows. (See table in the original document)

1. Ball lightning is the most familiar anomalous phenomenon of the group considered [10, 16-20].Exceptionally extensive information on the observed physical properties of ball lightning has been presented at three levels:individual communications (such as that of Pudovkin [36]); collections of observed cases (Arago, Brandt, Khemfreis, McNally, Reyl, Dmitriyev, Arabadzhi, Grigoryev-Dmitriyev, Cherman, Stakhanov, Keul, Grigoryev-Grigoryeva, Otsuki-Ofuruton, Egeli [10], etc.); and analysis of data of collections (such as Smirnov [10], Dmitriyev [5]).

In particular, Smirnov [10] presented the averaged physical properties of lightning which are used in this book.There is confusion, however, even in his fundamental study of ball lightning.I had occasion to read hundreds of communications of random individuals about their encounters with ball lightning.It was interesting at first to read “this Satan” or “this devil,” etc., but after a hundred-odd files, you begin to mentally see what the unread files are going to say.Intense rotation of dust inside the ball lightning is mentioned in many of the communications.Smirnov does not include rotation among the physical properties of ball lightning.Apparently the senses simply do not accept the abundance and variety of the physical properties possessed by ball lightning.For example, in response to the question of one specialists about this problem, “Why didn’t you describe the effect of ball lightning on the televisions in the house in the journal Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, in particular the switching of the television sets to different programs after the ball lightning had departed?”He replied: “I don’t know why I didn’t describe it.Other neighbors’ televisions were just switched, but a microcircuit burned out in mine – my son fixed it.”

Passage through matter, glowing, strong electromagnetic radiation, electrical and magnetic fields and explosions are typical physical properties of ball lightning.To these we shall add rotation of air and dust inside the ball lightning.Publications do not include the property of gravitational field distortion, i.e., levitation.For objects as small as ball lightning, however, with a typical ball lightning diameter of 20-35 cm, it is difficult to observe such a property, especially as extremely varied movements of small objects under the effects of aerodynamic, magnetic and electrical forces are associated with ball lightning.An increase in the frequency of ball lightning during years of high solar activity was already noted by Barri [17].

2.Natural glowing formations or plasmoids are large-scale ball lightning [5].This exceptionally important conclusion was drawn by Dmitriyev based upon a study of the materials of numerous multipurpose scientific expeditions.These were under his supervision to the area of the Terektin Range of Gorno-Altai, where sites of frequent appearance of such natural glowing formations had been discovered [29].The basic physical properties of natural glowing formations and ball lighting coincide: passage through matter, glowing, electrical and magnetic fields, rotation, explosions.In addition, previously unknown physical properties were discovered: levitation, and a substantial increase, by a factor of about four, in the frequency of the appearance of natural glowing formations during years of high solar activity.

Olkhovatov [37] presents a brilliant description of the property of levitation of natural glowing formations in his study of the Sasovo explosions.Kolchin [13] describes many of the physical properties listed above for natural glowing formations, which he defines as UFOs of natural origin, and indicates that they are a major danger for every living thing.

3.Poltergeists are inexplicable sounds and movements and damage to furniture and equipment – phenomena with features of ball lightning.In the words of Yklichkin [23] (paper by V. P. Kaznacheyev, Fall 1997), the poltergeist phenomenon is associated with a spherical, weakly glowing body the size of average ball lightning with its own magnetic and electrical [22] fields.This formation, like ball lightning, passes freely through the walls of rooms.It can kill people, strangely enough, by unexpectedly forcing blood from one part of the body to another.

4.Tornadoes are destructive movements of the air well known from television and the press media which are clearly related to natural glowing formations and clusters of ball lightning.Nalivkin [9] describes tornadoes this way:“Faye (1897) describes several cases in which tornadoes were accompanied by ball lightning.Short and wide sheet lightning sometimes encircles the funnel.Sometimes the entire surface glows with a strange yellowish luminescence.Sometimes spherical bluish formations of the ball lightning type but of much larger dimensions can be seen in the tornado cloud.Sometimes slow-moving columns of fire are formed (Lane, 1966; Lowe and McKay, 1962; Vonnegut and Meyer, 1961).A study by Jones (1965) describes a unique pulsed electrical activity generator and a center visibly in a tornado cloud in the form of a rounded light blue spot that appears 30-90 minutes before the funnel develops.Vonnegut’s study (Vonnegut and Meyer, 1966) cites night photography of glowing columns accompanying funnels.”

The terms “tornado cloud” and “funnel” require explanation.For this purpose, we shall refer to Merkulov’s professional description of the tornado phenomenon [21]:“The tornado is generated from a mother or tornado cloud and touches down in the form of a long trunk, inside which the air rotates rapidly, at a speed which sometimes reaches the speed of sound.The mother cloud, which is a small tropical hurricane, has a so-called eye like a real hurricane, in which there is a dead calm, and has a spiral structure. . . .The average dimensions of a tornado cloud are not large:5-10 km across, with a height of 4-5 km.The distance from the ground to the bottom edge of the cloud is of the order of a few hundred meters – or more rarely more.A horizontal vortex cloud with an inclined or vertical column of the cyclone-tornado itself is observed, as a rule, in the tornado cloud.A farmer from the state of Kansas has given a detailed description of the void inside a tornado.Standing in the entrance to a storm shelter, he observed a tornado approaching over the plain.Near the shelter, the tip of the tornado funnel rose from the ground and passed above the farmer.“The big, ragged end of the funnel was hanging right over my head.Everything around was still.There was a squeaking, hissing sound coming from the end of the funnel.I looked up and, to my surprise, saw the heart of the tornado itself.In the middle of it was a void with a diameter of 30-70 m that went up for a distance of about a kilometer.The walls of the cavity were formed by rotating clouds, and the cavity itself was illuminated by the steady flashing of lightning jumping in zigzags from one side to the other.The cavity was completely empty, and there were only misty formations moving up and down.The tornado moved slowly, and I had time to get a good look at everything, inside and out.”The internal void of a tornado, as numerous observations and measurements have demonstrated, has substantially reduced pressure.

Hence the glowing formations exist both in the relatively large-scale tornado cloud and in the relatively small tornado funnel.The radiation of tornadoes in the light range of electromagnetic waves has been previously pointed out.It is also known that a tornado emits electromagnetic waves in the radio range in the form of high-intensity white noise.Ordinary lightning attests to the presence of an electrical field in tornadoes.It has been discovered that the trunk of the tornado has a magnetic field corresponding to an electric current of hundreds of amperes [38].A tornado can carry living people and animals for a good distance; it also carries a multitude of various objects, such as a cache of coins [21], without scattering them.Doesn’t it follow that a tornado possesses the property of levitation?

The improbably intense rotation in a tornado can be caused only by the distributed moment of forces.Hence we can see in the tornado phenomenon all the physical properties which indicate the presence of vacuum domains.

5.Angels are a form of typical radar noise [39].Radar operators learned long ago to distinguish such angels from their targets:aircraft and missiles.It should be mentioned that the angles are observed at the points of fractures in the Earth’s crust.As it turns out, the angels are observed kilometers above the fractures, while below, directly above the fractures, natural glowing formations are visually observed.

6.Cosmic ice is the name for bodies moving toward Earth from nearby space which absorb ultraviolet radiation.These objects were detected in 1982 as a result of the analysis of photographs of open sectors of outer space transmitted to Earth by two American satellites.It was hypothesized initially that these bodies were made of water, specifically ice.“Judging from the data of the new Polar satellite, these ice chunks fly into our atmosphere with a frequency of 5 to 20 times a minute.Their size is often approximately that of a house in the suburbs” [40].

The hypothesis that ice falls on the Earth, and consequently on the Moon, has been met with sharp objections.If cosmic ice were actually made of ice, its falling on the Moon would have been recorded by seismographs from the Apollo spacecraft.“However, seismographs record much fewer strikes than must be made by ice comets” [40, 41].

According to the model examined in this book, vacuum domains, like ice, must absorb ultraviolet radiation.At the same time, vacuum domains must release much less energy than ice comets in contact with the Moon.

Hence natural glowing formations are encountered in direct proximity to the Earth’s surface, angels are seen higher up, and still higher there is cosmic ice; i.e., all three types of objects are visible traces of the same phenomenon.

7.Ionospheric and atmospheric explosions are explosions not of manmade origin in the region of the Earth’s ionosphere.These explosions cause conflicts of military and civilian authorities in the United States, Australia, etc. [35].The military has proven that they are not involved with these explosions.

According to the model examined in this book, vacuum domains must explode while preserving their form in entering the highly electrically conductive plasma medium of the ionosphere.Hence we can see another trace in the ionosphere from the effect of vacuum domains in their movement from space to the Earth.

8.Lithosphere explosion pipes are the visible consequences of concentrated explosions in the lithosphere of the Earth, in which thermodynamic conditions for the formation of diamonds are established.The mechanism of these explosions remains completely incomprehensible within the limits of current physical concepts.On the other hand, Yakut legends make it possible to link the lithosphere explosion pipes to explosions of natural glowing formations [42].

The problem of contact explosions of vacuum domains, i.e., the problem in which a vacuum domain in a gravitational field comes into rapid contact with the electrically conductive medium of the Earth’s lithosphere, is one of the simplest problems in the vacuum domain model.The cause of a contact explosion is associated with pulsed electric current which appears as a result of the neutralization of the electrical monocharge of a vacuum domain in Earth rock.It turns out that the energy density of such an explosion will be high only in the presence of large dimensions of the vacuum domain, such as a spherical domain diameter greater than 1-10 km.

Hence one can suggest that the lithosphere explosion pipes are a trace in the rock of the Earth of large vacuum domains in their movement from space to the Earth.

9.Sprites, elves and jets are types of luminescence in the upper part of a storm cloud in the presence of flashes of lightning in the lower part.Sprites are a red luminescence in the central part of the cloud in the form of a rocket taking off.Elves are a blue side luminescence that accompanies the sprites.Jets are a luminescence along the ionosphere accompanying sprites that appears when the sprites reach the appropriate altitude.

On the initiative of Eberhard Vonnegut, a well-known tornado researcher and brother of Kurt Vonnegut, the famous German author, sprites, elves and jets were investigated in 1996-1997 under the Space Shuttle program [43].

The impression is that there is something in the storm cloud, as in the tornado cloud (in the case of tornadoes).This impression was reflected in the Feynmann lectures on physics [44]:“Now we want to turn to a discussion of the aspect of the matter that is most important to us – the development of electrical charges [author’s note:in a storm cloud] . . . .The apex of the thunderstorm is positively charged, while the bottom is negatively charged, with the exception of a small section of positive charges in the lower part of the cloud, which has caused quite a bit of trouble for researchers.No one knows why it shows up there or how important it is, whether it is just a secondary effect of positive rain, or whether itis a substantial part of the overall mechanism. . . .The charge of the bottom part of the cloud suffices to create a potential different of 20, 30 or even 100 million V between the cloud and the ground – incomparably greater than the 0.4-million-volt differential between the sky and the ground in clear weather.These enormous voltages go through the air and create a gigantic storm discharge.The negative charge from the bottom of the cloud in breakdown is carried in lightning zigzags to the ground . . . .The flashes follow, one after another, in an irregular way, but essentially in such a way that the return to the initial conditions always occurs in approximately five seconds.Consequently, there is a current of approximately 4 A in the storm dynamo.And this means that any model conceived to explain how a storm vortex generates electricity must be very powerful – this must be an enormous, high-speed scheme.”

It seems that the vacuum domain plays the role of such an enormous, high-speed scheme – the electrical machine of the thundercloud.There are many cases in the descriptions of anomalous phenomena in which the assumption of shape changing and even dividing of vacuum domains is made.Such dividing of vacuum domains apparently also occurs in the case of thunderstorms, with the development of luminescence in the form of sprites, elves and jets.

10.Luminescence in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are a widespread phenomenon which has been described by many eyewitnesses and researchers [45].Dmitriyev writes [5] in connection with this phenomenon that “the removal of internal stresses in the Earth is accompanied not only by normal seismic vulnerability of sectors of the Earth’s crust but also by the release of gases, as well as by complex electromagnetic, acoustical and gravitational processes which occupy even the ionosphere.And all these processes emerge as precursors of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.Such phenomena are also accompanied by ball lightning, strong thunderstorms and snowstorms” [24].

Hence if ball lightning is acknowledged as fragments of large-scale self-luminous formations within the epicenters of earthquakes, tornadoes, etc., one step remains to reach an understanding of the serious role of vacuum domains in these phenomena.Ball lightning, self-luminous formations and vacuum domains actually possess the same physical properties.

Since vacuum domains have high mobility both in the atmosphere and in the rock of the Earth, one can understand the effect of excitation of all the space above the surface of the Earth up to the ionosphere during the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Table 1 presents two more physical properties which are not included in the list of properties indicated above: namely, “shape: ball, ellipsoid, etc.,” and “connection with active Sun.”

The property “shape: ball, ellipsoid, etc.” reflects the fact that a vacuum domain, according to observers, can occupy local, confined regions in space.

The property “connection with active Sun” reflects the increase in the probability of frequency of vacuum domains on Earth during years of peaks in the 11-year solar activity cycles.This latter property follows from the fundamental physical concepts which form the basis for the vacuum domain model.

One can see from the comparison performed on the characteristics in question for the anomalous phenomena and vacuum domains that all the phenomena emerge as a result of the same phenomenon – physical processes in vacuum domains in various material environmentsand under field conditions.

It isnot difficult to see that both physical and mathematical models of vacuum domains must possess extensive capabilities for explaining the processes that occur in them simultaneously:penetration of matter, levitation, electromagnetic and mechanical effects, luminescence, etc.One must keep in mind in this connection that in the current sense, the physical model is not a physical theory based on a single idea – even a very strong, clear idea – but rather a synthetic, theoretical construct based, in this case, on many of the theories created over a period of more than 100 years by many scientists of genius -Maxwell [46], Heaviside [47], Poincaré [48], Minkowski [49], Lorentz [50], Dirac [51], Terletskiy [52], etc. – consistent with modern theories of polarization media, such as the one developed by Polivanov [31] et al., and the physical vacuum, such as the one created by Shipov [53] et al.

The point, however, is not the high intellectual level at which the model has been developed but whether a theoretical basis has been prepared for describing the anomalous phenomena listed above and many such phenomena.Study of the model indicates [3, 4, 6] that such a basis has been prepared.

It follows from the properties of penetration of the vacuum domain into matter that the model must be based on physical concepts of the physical vacuum.Moreover, the mathematical model that uses such concepts must have a mathematical description, we dare say at once, of this medium.

1.3. Physical vacuum – not a void

The idea that the physical vacuum is a void arises as early as Democritus.Here is what Einstein and Infeld wrote about it [54]:“Throughout the history of science, from Greek philosophy to modern physics, there have been constant attempts to reduce the outward complexity of natural phenomena to some simple physical ideas and relationships.This is a basic principle of all natural philosophy.It was expressed as early as the work of the atomists.Twenty-three centuries ago, Democritus wrote, ‘ . . . only atoms and empty space are real.’”

Shipov [55] expresses the current physical ideas about the nature of the physical vacuum:“At the beginning of the twentieth century, with the development of Maxwell-Dirac quantum electrodynamics, on the one hand, and Einstein’s theory of gravitation, on the other, a new level of reality – the physical vacuum – had already appeared in theoretical physics as an object for research; in the process, theories differing in nature were producing different ideas about it.While the vacuum is considered as empty four-dimensional space-time produced by Riemann’s geometry in Einstein’s theory, the vacuum (globally neutral) in Maxwell-Dirac electrodynamics is a kind of “boiling soup” made up of virtual electron particles and positron antiparticles.Further development of quantum field theory demonstrated that the ground state of all quantum fields – the physical vacuum – is formed not only by virtual electrons and positrons but also by all the other known particles and antiparticles in a virtual state.In order to unify these two different ideas about the vacuum, Einstein put forward a program that came to be called the Unified Field Theory Program.”Later Shipov writes about the well-known difficulties in carrying out this program.He ends his examination of the physical vacuum problem in this way:“It is becoming clear now that the unified field theory program has grown and overflowed into physical vacuum theory, which is called upon to explain not only the phenomena of objective physics but also psychophysical phenomena.”

In connection with our research on the physical vacuum it is necessary to touch on the extremely complex and tangled history of the ether.We shall note first of all that the concept of the ether was developed in a time when mechanistic ideas were prevalent in physics.The concept of fields was established, and the first steps were made in developing the foundations of the theory of space and time, i.e., the special theory of relativity.It was attempted at that time, of course, to represent the ether as a mechanical medium.In this cluster of physics problems based on Maxwell equations, and especially in connection with Maxwell’s bias current, there emerged another idea about the ether as a medium possessing dielectric and magnetic properties at the same time.

The mechanical theories of the ether were rejected.Einstein and Infeld [54] wrote this about the subject:“Discussion of all the various attempts to describe the mechanical nature of the ether as a medium for the transmission of light would be a long story . . . .To construct the ether as a jelly-like substance, physicists have to make several extremely unnatural assumptions.We shall not cite them here: they belong to an almost forgotten past.The result, however, was significant and important.The artificial nature of all these assumptions and the need to introduce such a multitude of them, all quite independent of each other – all this was enough to break down confidence in the mechanical point of view.”

However, the idea of the either as a simultaneously dielectric and magnetic medium was also rejected at the same time.Zeldovich and Khlopov [56] wrote this about it in their book:“Students of the works of Maxwell observe that the bias current hypothesis appears in Maxwell’s works as if it were self-evident, without any special reservations or hesitation.It may be that the point here is that in the physical picture considered by Maxwell, the bias current corresponded to the real movement of charges in a particular medium – the ether.The existence of the ether was rejected at the end of the nineteenth century.”

It is difficult to understand now why the unsound mechanistic models of the ether and the quite acceptable model of the ether as a kind of electromagnetic medium were indissolubly linked.However, in reading the book by Einstein and Infeld cited above, one can only guess about what they were thinking when the writing the book and even somewhat later: if there is a medium, then it is necessarily mechanical.And such a universal, pervasive medium, of course, must present resistance to the movement of the planets in the Solar System.But no such resistance was detected.The ether medium, therefore, does not exist.And if no such medium exists, there are also no material carriers of electrical and magnetic properties in space.

Such surprising properties of matter as superconductivity(H. Kamerling-Onnes, 1911) and superfludity (P. L. Kapitsa, 1938), by the way, were discovered much later, when the ether had already been abandoned.Now, on the other hand, with these properties of matter quite familiar, the movement of the planets without resistance in some ubiquitous medium no longer seems impossible.

The most up-to-date ideas about the physical nature of the physical vacuum, according to which the vacuum is not a void, i.e., the physical vacuum is a medium, have been presented in an article by Simonov and Shevchenko [57] published in the journal Nauka v Rossii in 1998.It is appropriate to quote the annotation to the article:“In October 1974, international teams of scientists in the United States and Switzerland discovered a new particle – J/Y.It proved very heavy (about three nucleon masses) and long-lived, which suggested the thought of whether it might be made of ‘bricks,’ which were previously suggested.As early as the mid-sixties, the American theoretical physicist M. Gellmann expressed the idea of the existence of such things.They were called quarks.A characteristic feature of these particles is the fact that no one ever saw them in ‘pure form’ – only in combination with other particles.Then scientists created a new science, quantum chromodynamics (QCD), analogous to the familiar electrodynamics (QED), in which quarks correspond to electrons, and gluons (particles with zero mass and a spin of 1, which effect the interaction between quarks) correspond to photons.The quarks, however, carried a new ‘charge’ called color and had three varieties, while the gluons were of eight sorts, which complicated QCD as compared to electrodynamics, which had been studied in detail.It was thought at that time that there were only three types (aromas) of quarks – light u, d and s; and this picture was not taken seriously.However, the open particle J/Y was made up of a quark and an antiquark of a new type called a charm, or c-quark.It was at the moment of discovery of this fact that the quark nature of the particles in question became a genuine physical reality.Then it turned out, after numerous observations and calculations, that neither quarks nor gluons (i.e., the entire color world inside us and in the surrounding matter) ever escape into outside space: they are locked inside hadron particles.This phenomenon was called confinement (capture).In other words, in putting quarks and gluons together as color particles, we are talking about confinement – capture – of color.”

1.4. Physical vacuum – polarization medium

In quantum chromodynamics, the physical vacuum is considered as a lattice, at the nodes of which are located pairs made up of a c-quark and a c-antiquark connected by a “string”; i.e., these quarks at spaced some distance apart and are dipoles.Such a structure means that the physical vacuum is formed from dipoles and in macroscopic terms is a polarization medium.

Despite the categorical exclusion of the ether in science, among the specialists who work with material polarization media, dielectrics and, in particular, ferrielectrics and magnetics, ferromagnetics and ferrites, the idea, which is natural for them, that Maxwell equations provide a mathematical description for the physical vacuum as a ubiquitous polarization medium possessing electrical and magnetic permitivity equal to one is widespread.With such an approach, electrical and magnetic inductions are the sums of electrical polarizations of the material dielectric medium and the physical vacuum, and magnetic polarizations of the material magnetic medium and the physical vacuum, respectively.

Hence we have another conception, at least at the level of “scientific folklore,” of the physical nature of the physical vacuum as an electrical and a magnetic medium at the same time.

The concept of Maxwell equations as equations which also describe the properties of the physical vacuum – polarization medium – is in full agreement with the current understanding of the physical vacuum in the developing theory of quantum chromodynamics.

At the same time, there is no doubt that the Maxwell equations, even if they provide a mathematical model for the properties of the physical vacuum as a polarization electrical and magnetic medium, are not complete.It is necessary also to give a mathematical description for the gravitational properties of the physical vacuum, but now as a gravitational polarization medium and not as empty four-dimensional space-time as provided for by Riemann geometry in Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

It is not difficult to assign the physical vacuum pro forma properties as a gravitational polarization medium or even to give a mathematical description for the gravity part of the physical vacuum.Heaviside [47] presented equations of gravidynamics similar to the Maxwell equations as early as 100 years ago (1893).The Heaviside equations can easily be reduced to the current form of Maxwell equations, and gravity polarizations of the physical vacuum can then be introduced by analogy, which is what the author of this book actually did in 1995 [3].In the study in question, the polarization resembling electrical polarization was called gravitational polarization of the physical vacuum, while the polarization resembling magnetic polarization was called the spin polarization of the physical vacuum.

Hence the physical analysis of Heaviside equations at the present level results in the physical substantiation of the model of the gravitational part of the physical vacuum as a polarization medium.

Heaviside’s dynamic theory of attraction, or gravidynamics, is in full agreement with Minkowski’s special theory of relativity.In Heaviside gravidynamics, a relativistic integral law for the conservation of mass is defined, similar to the way in which the relativistic integral of electrical charge conservation is fulfilled in Maxwell electrodynamics.In Minkowski mechanics, the mass defined as the rest mass emerges as a relativistic invariant [58].In Heaviside gravidynamics, mass plays the same role as the electrical charge in Maxwell electrodynamics.Hence the Heaviside equations are covariant relative to Lorentz transformations, like Maxwell equations.

Relativistic equations of Poincaré [48] and Minkowski [49] gravidynamics follow from Heaviside equations [47] represented, as we know, in their Lorentz-covariant sense in fields.Conversely, Heaviside field equations follow from Poincaré and Minkowski equations (relativistic Poisson equations and D’Alambert wave equations “in potentials”) in the same representation.

Thus Heaviside’s theory emerges as a strictly relativistic theory of gravitation.Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GTR), on the contrary, as Streltsov demonstrated [59], is not a relativistic theory of gravidynamics.

Streltsov devoted attention to the fact that the GTR is constructed based on Einstein’s idea that “all energy E possesses a mass proportionate to it (E/c2).”This condition has been given the name of the law of inertia of energy (LIE).

The LIE is not a covariant law.According to the Minkowski theory, the nonrelativistic relationship E = mc2 must be replaced with Lorentz covariant relationships [58]:P = Ev/c2, m2c2 = (E/c)2 – P2, where m is the rest mass, and P is the particle impulse; i.e., E = mc2y, where y = (1-v2/c2)-1/2.The relativistic relationship between mass and energy makes it possible, as Streltsov writes [59], to assert that “if there is an energy that corresponds to any mass, then the mass does not correspond to any energy.”In particular, in Heaviside Lorentz-covariant gravitation theory, there are no serious physical grounds for attaching the physical sense of mass densities to the energy densities of fields.

Thus the physical vacuum can be represented as a polarization medium using Maxwell and Heaviside vacuum equations for this purpose, with inductions seen as polarizations of the physical vacuum.The kinematic properties of the physical vacuum in this case will be characterized by Lorentz transformation equations of fields and polarizations (inductions), while the dynamic properties will be characterized by the Maxwell tensor of stresses.Obviously with such an approach, the electromagnetic and gravispin parts of the physical vacuum prove not to be related at all.Following Shipov [53], we shall call this physical vacuum the absolute physical vacuum (APV).

It is not difficult to observe that the physical vacuum cited above – the APV – has been familiar to physicists for more than 100 years (Maxwell in the 1860s [46] and Heaviside [47] in 1893).The APV appears as the result of a new view of theories and definitions which have been known for a long time – vacuum inductions are given the physical sense of polarizations of the physical vacuum.Such a conception of the physical vacuum does not produce any unknown physical phenomena, nor does it affect any field in modern physics.Following Terletskiy and Rybakov [58], one can refer to such the APV as “useless.”

1.5. Non-homogeneous physical vacuum and vacuum domains

At the same time, the polarization model of the APV is quite an extensive mathematical construct described by four vector fields, electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin, and four vector polarizations – inductions of the same descriptions.

The four polarizations of the physical vacuum as a polarization medium make it possible to turn our attention to certain physical phenomena defined by the relationships of magnetic and spin polarizations, and electrical and gravitational polarizations.The basic idea of the possibility of the existence of these relationships in the physical vacuum is simple:the majority of elementary particles simultaneously possess electrical charges and masses, and magnetic moments and spins, and the physical vacuum can be represented as a medium populated by such elementary particles, even if they are quarks, but in the form of dipoles.

It is permissible to suggest that many of the physical polarization phenomena in matter and in the physical vacuum must have the same nature.Gyromagnetic phenomena can be classified as such phenomena in matter; the study of these phenomena started with the experiments of Barnett in 1909 (the appearance of magnetization in a rotating model of ferromagnetic material) and the Einstein-de Haase experiments (rotation of a model of ferromagnetic material in its remagnetization) in 1915 [60, 61].Phenomena of paramagnetic and nuclear resonances [62] have a gyromagnetic nature, as do processes of pulsed remagnetization of ferromagnetics and ferrites [32, 34].

Gyromagnetic phenomena in a ferromagnetic material are explained based on the hypothesis of the existence of the spin-related (and related, in part, to orbital moments) density of the moment of the quantity of motion – spin polarization defined as a vector collinear with the magnetization vector – the magnetic polarization [61].

One can suggest by analogy in the physical vacuum model that there is a relationship of magnetic and spin polarizations in the vacuum.Such a suggestion was made for the first time by Akimov in his descriptive model of polarization states of the physical vacuum and torsion fields [2].

It was necessary in the construction of this mathematical model of the physical vacuum [3, 4, 6] to use the hypothesis of a linear relationship of electrical and gravitational polarizations as well as magnetic and spin polarizations of the physical vacuum.

One could say, of course, that the relationship of electrical and gravitational polarizations in the physical vacuum should exist on the strength of the symmetry of electrical and gravitational processes and magnetic and spin processes.However, it is possible to go deeper in examining this issue.In that case, we must deal with the problem of negative mass.

We shall not, to begin with, that the physical vacuum as an electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin polarization medium, is, on the whole, a globally neutral medium.It can consist only of elementary dipoles (electrical and gravitational) and moments (magnetic and spin).With this sense of the physical vacuum, gravitational dipoles must be represented as linked pairs of elementary positive and negative masses.The requirement of negative mass appears in the polarization model of the physical vacuum.

Negative mass is necessary in the Heaviside theory and, consequently, in the model in question for another reason as well.The Heaviside equations describe gravity in an infinite Universe.In this case, however, with the existence of positive mass only, an old problem, already familiar in Newton’s theory of gravity emerges:the problem of the gravity paradox – the infinite potential energy of any gravitational object.The gravity paradox does not arise when the total of positive and negative mass in the Universe is equal to zero, as the electrical paradox does not arise in electrical field theory with the use of the concept of the equality of positive and negative charges in the Universe.

Opinions in modern physics about the existence of negative mass have ranged from total rejection (Zeldovich et al. [56, 63]) to acknowledgement and necessity (Terletskiy [52], Shipov [53], Shulgin [64]).There is also the need to introduce negative mass in the polarization model of the physical vacuum, as we saw above.Therefore, the examination of arguments against negative mass, and, consequently, negative energy, takes on great importance.

We find the following wording in the book by Zeldovich and Khlopov [56]:”In Dirac’s theory, the existence of the magnetic moment of an electron was obtained directly as a consequence of the fact that the electron has an electrical charge and spin.However, the number of states did not double in this case but quadrupled!In addition to the two states with “up” and “down” spin direction, another two precisely similar states, “spin up” and “spin down,” but with negative energy, were predicted for the electron.The problem of states with negative energy emerged.And oh, the properties of these states must be strange!In only this:the total energy in these states is negative, including rest energy (E0 = mc2; i.e., E 2).In order to increase the speed of such an electron, energy must be taken away from it.And conversely:energy must be transmitted to it in order to stop it.It was obvious that there is no such thing in nature.”

However, the actual acknowledgement of particles with negative energies and masses follows from Dirac’s theory, if it is assumed that their movement is related not to “heating up” but to “cooling down” of the surrounding particles.It is necessary in this case to proceed to breaking down the law of the increase in entropy.In this case, a problem with a second origin of thermodynamics arises, although everything remains in order with the first origin of thermodynamics (the law of the preservation of energy).

Along with this, one can start breaking down the second origin of thermodynamics by introducing negative mass, but with one necessary condition: with this assumption, the theory itself must explain why the second origin of thermodynamics remains in force within limited volumes in the Universe.

In accepting negative mass, one must thereby accept the quadrigue (group of four) of particles of Terletskiy [52], which is accepted both by Shipov [53] and, in essence, by Shulgin [64].The “quadrupling of states” in Dirac’s quantum theory provides a definite substantiation for this quadrigue of particles.

Terletskiy’s quadrigue of particles [52, 53] is a remarkable discovery in the model of the physical vacuum as a polarization medium.The basic property of the four particles of the Terletskiy quadrigue actually is that the sums of the four electrical charges, masses, magnetic moments and spin moments (spins) are equal to zero.From the Terletskiy quadrigue, one can distinguish two dyads of particles in which the sums of their two electrical charges, masses and magnetic and spin moments are also equal to zero.Thus Terletskiy’s quadrigue of particles itself and the two component dyads of particles from the quadrigue are appropriate for constructing a model of the elementary cells of the physical vacuum as a globally neutral polarization medium.Hence three physical vacuums emerge in model construction:the absolute physical vacuum (APV), consisting of Terletskiy quadrigues; the physical vacuum of matter (PVM), which contains particles of a dyad, one of which is an ordinary particle; and the physical vacuum of antimatter (PVA), consisting of particles of a dyad, one of which is an antiparticle.

In the APV, all the polarization-inductions – electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin – are totally unrelated to each other.They depend only on the respective fields (electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin) and are described by Maxwell and Heaviside vacuum equations.

In the PVM and PVA, the electrical and gravitational polarization-inductions and the magnetic and spin polarization-inductions are interrelated.All these polarizations, in turn, are related by Maxwell and Heaviside vacuum equations.

Hence in the absolute physical vacuum, the polarization model breaks down into two independent models:the Maxwell theory of electromagnetism, and the Heaviside theory of gravispinorics.No law of physics is affected in this regard.

On the contrary, the relationships of electrical and gravitational polarizations and of magnetic and spin polarizations in the PVM and PVA result in a unified system of equations which form the basis for a combined electrogravidynamics model.This system of equations also makes it possible to connect two larger theories:the electronic theory of matter, by way of electrical charges and magnetic polarizations of the Maxwell equations, and continuum mechanics, by way of masses and moments of the quantity of movement of the Heaviside equations.

In the physical vacuums of matter and antimatter, we can see a modified physical vacuum, which makes up the bodies of vacuum domains – the translucent, self-luminous bodies which are the cause of anomalous phenomena.We shall repeat that the bodies of the vacuum domains are immersed in the absolute physical vacuum medium.Each of the vacuums, APV, PVM and PVA, has its own mathematical representation in the form of systems of differential equations in partial derivatives.Hence the description of the physical properties of vacuum domains can be obtained as a result of the solution of boundary value problems of mathematical physics with boundary conditions on the surfaces of the vacuum domains and at infinity.

Thus in the model presented, the physical vacuum is seen as a heterogeneous medium.One part of such a vacuum consists of a homogeneous, isotropic polarization medium, infinite in space, in the form of the APV.This vacuum is found in all material formations (matter is that which possesses positive mass and is located in the same space as the APV).At the same time, there is also another part of the heterogeneous medium present in the same space:distributed negative mass (Shipov [53]), as well as the vacuum domains of physical vacuums of matter and antimatter, which are polarization media.These two latter physical vacuums interact with the APV, which weakens the electrical and gravitational relationships within the vacuum domains.

Hence the non-homogeneous physical vacuum in this book means a physical vacuum of multiple types.We shall mention in this connection that a homogeneous (single type) non-homogeneous physical vacuum is also known in physics.The inhomogeneity of this vacuum is characterized by variation in its density and pressure in space.The idea of the non-homogeneous homogeneous physical vacuum was expressed by Atsyukovskiy [65, 66].The same idea is considered by Khoteyev [67], who developed the concept of the ether sphere of the Earth.The conception of non-homogeneous ether in these publications is put forward to explain experimentally observed physical phenomena which contradict the established ideas of modern physics.Such hydrodynamic models of the ether, however, fail to make possible a deep and convincing explanation for the effects in question.A considerably more substantial model of the physical vacuum, possibly based on the idea of the existence of diffuse vacuum domains, is necessary for this purpose.

The main objects for study in the polarization model presented for a non-homogeneous physical vacuum are vacuum domains, which are independent objects of the Universe.Consequently, such a model can with equal validity be called both a physical and a mathematical model of vacuum domains.The concept of the vacuum domain which is introduced – the basic object of the non-homogeneous physical vacuum – makes it possible to define in explicit and concrete form one of the fundamental and extremely timely problems of physics now and in the future:the perception of the physical vacuum as a polarization medium possessing a very rich spectrum of states and manifestations of those states.

# 2. Polarization model of the non-homogenous physical vacuum

2.1.Models of the physical vacuum

2.1.1.The Need for a non-homogeneous physical vacuum model

The anomalous phenomena (AP) considered in Chapter 1 are surprising phenomena.The AP reflect clear manifestations of known physical processes in a totally unusual combination, and features of processes which are very difficult to explain based on current physical knowledge.

In the AP one can see clear traces of electromagnetic processes:strong electromagnetic radiation in a range of wavelengths at least from fractions of a micron (light radiation) up to meters (effects on television and radio); changes in electrical and magnetic fields (clear signs of electrical breakdown and magnetization in rock at point of contact of self-luminous formations of the AP with the surface of the Earth, and a change in magnetic field in the appearance of AP); electrical discharges (electrical injuries to people and animals by ball lighting).

Attentive study of the information about the behavior of self-luminous formations of AP forces one to hypothesize that the gravitational field changes around them.Signs of levitation associated with AP have been described in the articles indicated above, especially the articles pertaining to the Sasovo explosions.

The AP clearly carry great energy.The presence in them of energy associated with electrical and magnetic fields is obvious.However, one can judge according to the release of heat and the strength of the explosions that the energy of the AP is much greater than the energy associated with electrical and magnetic fields [10, 12].For this reason alone, one must reject the electromagnetic models of ball lightning (BL) and other AP.

Modern physical theories cannot explain the entry of self-luminous formations of AP into solids and water or the passage of the self-luminous formation of AP through these media.In this regard, electrochemical (fractal) and plasma [10] models of ball lightning and other AP in general become unsound, especially since the formations in question are also observed in space.

One can see from the variety of physical properties of AP indicated above that the mathematical description of these phenomena cannot be based only on a single known fundamental theory.It is necessary to connect a number of such theories, primarily the theories of electromagnetic and gravitational fields.

It should be mentioned that these two theories integrate the fact that “ . . . in contract to short-lived nuclear and weak forces, electromagnetic and gravitational forces are long-lived; i.e., they decrease most slowly with distance between particles.It is just this factor that makes it possible to consider electromagnetic and gravity fields as macroscopic and to limit ourselves to a classical description of them” [58].

The theories of electromagnetic and gravity fields are also inadequate to describe AP.Local variation in the gravitational field in the space near an AP cannot be described by current theories of gravity, and the passage of AP through solids and water cannot be explained reasonably, even with the application of both these theories at once.Consequently, a new conception is needed which combines the theories of electromagnetic and gravitational fields and includes new qualities.The third theory, like the first two, must be macroscopic.

The theories of electromagnetic and gravitational fields cover the same physical vacuum.In classical Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein’s theory of gravity (GTR), no properties which would render the equations of the theories in question dependent in the mathematical sense are attached to this vacuum.However, in the long time which has passed since the development of the great theories of Maxwell and Einstein, the theory of the physical vacuum (PV) was developed, traveling the road from the rejected theories of the ether to virtual particles and antiparticles of quantum field theory [68], and most recently the PV has come to be seen as a quark polarization medium [57].

The population of the PV with virtual particles-antiparticles contains an important start in the understanding that electromagnetic and gravity phenomena can be related in relation to the PV, since the virtual particles-antiparticles are characterized by electrical charges and masses, as well as interrelated magnetic moments and moments of the amount of movement – spins.This relationship is used in a specific way by Akimov [2] in a heuristic model of the polarization states of the PV.The development of the concepts of particles-antiparticles with negative masses in the works of Terletskiy [52] and Shipov [53] eliminates the greatest difficulty in Akimov’s ideas of polarizations of the PV involved with the filling of the PV with particles-antiparticles with positive masses.Connecting the ideas of Terletskiy and Shipov with Akimov’s results makes it possible to represent the PV as a medium with interrelated polarizations:electrical and gravitational, and magnetic and spin [3, 4, 6].

Meanwhile, if it is assumed that electromagnetic and gravitational polarizations are related in all homogeneous and isotropic space, the relationship must be recognized as weak [3].Otherwise the model would yield physical phenomena which are not observed in large spaces of the Universe.However, another hypothesis has appeared under the impression of unusual physical properties of the AP – the hypothesis of the non-homogeneous PV [6], according to which the AP formations are local clusters of modified PV in the APV with properties differing from the properties of the main PV.It is suggested the electromagnetic and gravitational polarizations are weakly related in the APV and strongly related in the modified PV.These clusters of the modified PV are called vacuum domains.The spin polarizations could also be called torsion polarizations, since they correspond to Akimov’s torsion polarizations [2].

There is a place for the polarizations only in macroscopic physical models of neutral media, which is undoubtedly what the PV medium is.Therefore, the conception of the non-homogeneous PV, as a polarization model, is macroscopic.Therein lies the fundamental different between the model considered below and many of the known PV models of a macroscopic nature.It is important to note in this connection that the polarization model in question is associated with strong physical effects only with a non-homogeneous PV.In this case, spasmodic non-homogeneity of the polarizations in space and, consequently, concentrated bound charged and strong fields develop.

The macroscopic model of the non-homogeneous PV considered below is constructed based on the groundbreaking works of physicists published in the last 150 years and represents a synthesis of the results extracted from these works.All the physical phenomena predicted by this model are of a macroscopic nature.It will become clear from further consideration that it is extremely difficult to recreate the AP in laboratories.In this connection, the non-homogeneous PV model can be tested only in full-scale experiments and measurements.

The macroscopic non-homogeneous PV model makes it possible to simplify the terminology of the AP studied.Instead of the phrase “self-luminous formations of AP,” one can simply say “vacuum domains” (VD).

2.1.2.Classical models of the ether

At the turn of the century, the models of the PV were still associated with the concept of the ether – a weightless medium which penetrates, in the words of Lorentz [50], even through atoms and electrons.Terletskiy [58] writes:“Maxwell was an advocate of the mechanical point of view and represented the electromagnetic field in terms of stresses and strains of a special all-penetrating medium – the ether . . . ;Lorentz, the creator of the electronic theory, was also an ether advocate.While believing that an electromagnetic field is a special state of the ether, he nevertheless failed to assign the latter any mechanical properties.”Lorentz tried to substantiate the ether hypothesis based on experiments:“Lorentz’s hypothesis of the ether at rest with capacities for contractions by bodies explained the aberration, the Fizo entrainment factor, the Michaelson-Morley experiments, experiments with moving light sources and mirrors, the Michaelson-Morley experiments with sunlight, the emission of mobile charges, the Trowton-Noble experiments . . . , but proved unable to explain simply unipolar induction with a permanent magnet.”However, Lorentz “ . . . finally came . . . to the conclusion that the presence of the ether cannot be observed in any electrodynamic experiment.Lorentz’s ether remained an unidentified “thing in itself.”While recognizing its uselessness, Lorentz nevertheless was unable to take the final decisive step – to reject the ether.This was done by Einstein, the creator of the theory of relativity.Later the idea of the electromagnetic field as an independent material substance which is the carrier of electromagnetic interactions and is distributed in space gradually took shape” [58].

In a study in 1910 [65], Einstein actually states that “it is impossible to create a satisfactory theory without rejecting the existence of some medium that fills all space.”However, in his work in 1920 [65] he is already writing:“ . . . extremely close examination indicates that the special theory of relativity does not require the unconditional rejection of the ether.One can accept the existence of the ether, but one shouldn’t worry about attributing to it a specific state of movement; in other words, in the abstract, one needs to take away from it the last mechanical feature Lorentz left to it.”“To sum up, we can say:by expanding the concept of the physical object, one can imagine objects to which it is impossible to apply the concept of motion.These objects cannot be thought of as consisting of particles, the behavior of each of which is subject to investigation in time.”“The special theory of relativity prohibits considering the ether as made up of particles whose behavior in time can be observed, but the hypothesis of the existence of the ether does not contradict the special theory of relativity.One simply should not attribute a state of motion to the ether.”“To reject the ether in the final analysis means to accept that empty space has no physical properties.The basic facts of mechanics are not in agreement with such a view.”In a work in 1924 [65], Einstein writes:“ . . . in theoretical physics, we cannot get along without the ether, i.e., a continuum assigned physical properties, because the general theory of relativity . . . excludes direct long-range action; and each theory of short-range action assumes the presence of continuous fields and, consequently, the existence of the ‘ether.’”

One can see from the passages quoted above that the leading figures in physics at the beginning of the century were faced with not one but two ethers: Lorentz’s well-known nonrelativistic ether at rest [50], and Einstein’s little-known relativistic ether.In the kinematic sense, these two ethers are fundamentally different.The former is associated with an absolute (preferable) reference system, while the latter is compatible with the relativity principle, which assumes the equal status of all inertial reference systems.

While Lorentz, on the basis of analysis of experimental data, attributed physical properties to his ether which rendered it “unobservable” and “a thing in itself,” one can say the same thing about Einstein’s ether with even greater grounds.In addition, both these ethers make it possible to consider the physical vacuum as a polarization medium.In such an approach, Einstein’s relativistic ether takes on certain electromagnetic properties characterized by Maxwell vacuum equations, as well as dynamic properties characterized by the Maxwell tensor of stresses.Lorentz transformations of coordinates, fields and vacuum polarizations proportionate to the fields obviously characterize the kinematic properties of Einstein’s ether.This step in itself, of course, does not alter the conditions of the mathematical theory o electrodynamics.It makes it possible, however, to obtain new ideas for the development of the physical vacuum theory.

The development of Einstein’s ideas about the relativistic ether without a “state of motion” by Korukhov and Sharypov [69-71] are of great interest in terms of methodology.According to Korukhov [69], for example:“The speed of light can have the same value for any inertial observer, if the light propagates in a medium that possesses the kinematic property of invariance of rest. . . .A medium with such a condition for motion shows up in examination only in a state of rest.The postulate of invariance of the speed of light can be replaced with an equivalent postulate of invariance of rest of the medium relative to inertial observers.”These ideas of the so-called Planckian ether make possible a uniform approach to both polarizations of matter and polarizations of the ether in any inertial reference system.

The non-homogeneous PV model in question is based on Einstein’s ether, which has the primary purpose of obtaining mathematical relationships which rest on known results of the use of the special theory of relativity in electrodynamics.The problem of ether wind, however, if one has in mind anisotropic phonon (relic) radiation, does not cease to be urgent [65].Therefore, further development of the theory of relativity is needed.

Primary attention in this discussion is devoted not to this problem but to the problem of polarizations of the PV, where we can limit ourselves to the application of the special theory of relativity as a good approximation.

2.1.3.Field conception of the physical vacuum

Thus the field conception of the PV, according to which space is filled only with fields, and there is no medium at all present in it, has been affirmed in science since the beginning of the twentieth century.In addition, the following fundamental conditions have come to be indisputable [58]:

1. homogeneity of space and time;
2. isotropicity of space;
3. the principle of relativity;
4. the postulate of constancy of the speed of light in a vacuum.

From these conditions flow Lorentz transformations, as well as the covariance of Maxwell equations in mobile reference systems [58, 72, 73].

The field conception of the PV produced a curious situation.While the Maxwell vacuum equations in the presence of the ether were equations of an ether-medium model, in the case of space lacking a medium, the Maxwell vacuum equations described only the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum space.Hence some equations in partial derivatives emerged in physics which do not reflect the properties of any physical medium.In this connection, abstract conceptions of inductions and bias current in a vacuum emerged in the Maxwell equations and are causing substantial complications in the understanding of the physical basis of electrodynamics.

2.1.4.Akimov model of polarization states of the physical vacuum

Definite shifts in the direction of the repeated return to the PV as a medium are a result of equations of quantum mechanics and Dirac’s electron-positron vacuum [51].After the experimental discovery of the production of electron-positron pairs, as well as other particle-antiparticle pairs, in a vacuum, a large number of microscopic models of the PV were developed, associated with the theory of virtual (possible) fields and particles; such models are presented in [2], for example. Microscopic models of the PV received a completed form in representations of the quantum field from which both known fields and particles of matter are produced [68].These theories, however, did not make it possible to create a macroscopic model of the PV for the description of collective physical effects within it.

Akimov’s schematic conception of the polarization states of the PV [2] is of great importance on the path to the development of macroscopic models of the PV.In this model, the PV is represented as a structured medium, the elementary cell of which – the fiton – contains a particle-antiparticle pair.The fact that particles-antiparticles simultaneously possess electrical charges and masses, and magnetic moments and moments of the quantity of motion – spins – also draws attention.As a result, the PV appears simultaneously as electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin polarization media.Electrical and gravitational polarizations and magnetic and spin polarizations turn out to be related theoretically.Akimov’s model in fully explicit form returns to the theory of the PV as ether-medium.This ether does not resemble Lorentz’s ether or Einstein’s ether.Akimov’s ether is polarization ether, but with interrelated polarizations.It has a relationship to both electrodynamics and gravidynamics.The polarizations are measurable variables, which can occur only in a macroscopic model of the PV.

2.1.5.Terletskiy particle-antiparticle quadrigues

At the same time, the Akimov model cannot be considered complete, since both the particles and the antiparticles possess positive rest masses.Consequently, the PV in this model must have positive mass.It is obvious that with positive mass of the PV, insurmountable difficulties arise with Newton’s law of gravity, and the gravity polarization cannot be strictly determined.The ideas contained in the works of Terletskiy and Shipov provide a way out of this difficult position.

Based on the laws of symmetry, Terletskiy [52] put forward the hypothesis that a particle-antiparticle pair with positive masses and a particle-antiparticle pair with negative masses should appear in the vacuum; i.e., they should be produced as quadrigues.

Shipov [53] created a fundamental theory of the PV by developing the Clifford-Einstein program in regard to the geometrization of physics equations, based on both progressive and rotational relativity (general relativity).Shipov’s theory uses the geometry of absolute parallelism and not the Riemann geometry on which Einstein’s general theory of relativity is based.The geometry of absolute parallelism is based on the concepts not only of curving but of twisting space-time.There are two twists: right and left.Therefor two physical worlds emerge, with right and left twisting, respectively.According to Shipov’s theory, the particles-antiparticles with positive masses belong to the right world.These are the well-known particles and antiparticles.The little-known particles-antiparticles with negative masses belong to the left world.It is thought at present that they are dispersed in space.The equality to zero of the total electrical charge and the total mass in the Universe and the absolute neutrality of the PV (at every point in space) in regard to both electrical charges and masses follow strictly from Shipov’s theory.Matter contains only the positive masses of the right world.The negative mass of the left world is scattered between the matter.The positive and negative electrical charges are balanced in both the right and left worlds.Shipov does not use any new or unknown characteristics of particles and antiparticles.Therefore one must assume that the particles-antiparticles of both right and left worlds simultaneously possess both masses and electrical charges, and magnetic moments and spins.

The Terletskiy microscopic model of particle-antiparticle quadrigues is affirmed in Shipov’s theory at the quantum mechanics level.

2.1.6.Akimov’s fiton and Terletskiy’s particle-antiparticle quadrigue

At the same time, the theory that we were discussing in the previous section is very far from such classical macroscopic concepts as polarization defined as the sum (vector sum, for example) of elementary dipoles or moments in a unit of volume.Therefore, the need arises to make the transition from the microscopic representations of Terletskiy-Shipov to the phenomenological representations of Akimov.This transition inevitably leads to the assertion that Akimov’s fiton must contain not a particle-antiparticle pair but a Terletskiy particle-antiparticle quadrigue.In this case, the shortcomings of Akimov’s model associated with the positive mass and indeterminate gravitational polarization of the PV are eliminated.The PV becomes fully neutral, and its gravitational polarization is defined precisely, like the electrical polarization of the PV [6].

In populating the Akimov fiton with Terletskiy quadrigues of particles-antiparticles of right and left worlds, we obtain a unified symmetrical system of electrical, gravitational, magnetic and spin polarizations of the PV.On the strength of the fact that the particles-antiparticles of the two worlds simultaneously possess positive and negative charges and masses, as well as magnetic moments and spins, one must expect connections of the electrical and gravitational polarization and the magnetic and spin polarizations.

2.1.7.Polarization-field conception of the physical vacuum

In the theories of dielectrics and magnetics, i.e., in the theories of material polarization media, polarizations characterize the state of matter itself, while the fields are factors of the change in these states.The polarization values in dielectrics and magnetics are actually related to the configurations of the electrical dipoles and magnetic moments, while the fields are related to the forces that cause variations in these configurations.Hence the fields prove to be the cause, while the polarization is the effect of this cause.One can say in this connection that the polarization-field conception has been confirmed in the polarization matter theories in question as a combination of representations of the interactions of various fields with dielectrics and magnetics.

The PV polarizations considered above do not differ fundamentally from the polarizations of matter.Therefore, all the approaches to them remain the same as the approaches to material polarizations.Consequently, it is also possible to use the conception above, which will be referred to hereinafter as the polarization-field conception of the PV, in the non-homogeneous PV model.

One can note the total similarity of the polarization-field conception in electrodynamics, and, consequently, in electrogravidynamics as well, and the conception of generalized coordinates and generalized forces in mechanics.Obviously the generalized coordinates correspond to polarizations, while the generalized forces correspond to fields.However, this similarity does not in any way mean a return to mechanistic representations in electrodynamics.In this analogy, one must see an identical, objectively existing cause-and-effect relationship between the fundamental concepts of two different theories.

2.2.Model of non-homogeneous physical vacuum from Terletskiy quadrigues and dyads

2.2.1.Basic properties of the physical vacuum of Terletskiy quadrigues

Since various particle-antiparticle pairs are produced in the vacuum, the Akimov fiton can also be made up of various pairs and can have a complex internal structure.These pairs must be based primarily on quarks, electron, proton and neutron.It must be the same in the replacement of particle-antiparticle pairs in the fiton with Terletskiy quadrigues of particle-antiparticle of the right world and particle-antiparticle of the left world.The quadrigue must also be based on quarks, electron, proton, neutron, etc.In addition, the features of the PV considered above are defined not by the complex structure of the fiton but by the properties of another Terletskiy fiton.Therefore, only one Terletskiy quadrigue will be represented in the fiton below, with the basic particle (right world) parameters m – mass; q – electrical charge; s – spin; u – magnetic moment.Such a fiton is shown in Fig. 1.

As one can see from the figure, the fiton contains particle 1 of the right world with the parameters +m, +q, +s, +u, antiparticle 2 of the right world with the parameters +m, -q, +s, -u, and two particles-antiparticles 3 and 4 of the left world with the parameters -m, +q, -s, +u, and -m, -q, -s, -u, respectively.Based on the idea put forward by Akimov of the unobservability of the PV in an unexcited state, one must assume that particles-antiparticles 1-4 in the absence of fields are enclosed one in another [2].In this case, the PV will be absolutely neutral in the sense that its mass, electrical charge, moment of the quantity of motion and magnetic moment are equal to zero, in the microscopic as well as the macroscopic sense.

One can see from an examination of Fig. 1 that even on the basis of classical physical ideas, the fiton in a gravitational field becomes a gravitational dipole, and, consequently, the PV takes on gravitational polarization.In an electrical field, in a similar manner, the PV takes on electrical polarization.In examining the effect of a magnetic field, it is necessary to use fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics [68], according to which the magnetic moment can be directed either according to the orientation of this field or opposite to it.In the case of the effect of a spin field, the same thing pertains to the spins.Based on these ideas, one can see that the PV takes on magnetic polarization in a magnetic field and spin polarization in a spin field.

The most important result of the consideration of the PV consisting of Terletskiy quadrigues is the absence of any connection among the four polarizations.Actually, according to Fig. 1, gravitational polarization develops under the effect of a gravitational field, but electrical polarization does not.The displacement of positive masses (1; 2) and negative masses (3; 4) by a gravitational field results in the displacement of electrical charges, but these charges remain balanced in both positive and negative masses.Quite a similar situation develops under the effect of an electrical field.In this case, the positive and negative mass remain balanced.In the consideration of the effect of magnetic and spin fields, one must keep in mind that the direction of the spin s is rigidly related to the orientation of the magnetic moment m.And the spin and magnetic polarizations are specifically statistical concepts with a physical sense only in the consideration of a large number of fitons.In addition, in these cases as well, the situation remains quite similar under the effect of gravitational and electrical fields.A change in magnetic polarization is not related in any way to a change in spin polarization, and vice versa.

2.2.2 Three physical vacuums.Non-homogeneous physical vacuum of Terletskiy quadrigues and dyads

If one starts from Akimov’s idea of the PV as an unobservable medium in an unexcited state, or, more precisely, as a neutral medium, where the mass and electrical charge of all four polarizations are equal to zero in the microscopic sense, one must acknowledge that, generally speaking, there must three PV.These three PVs are shown in Fig. 2.

The PV of Terletskiy quadrigues can be called, following Shipov’s practice [53], the absolute physical vacuum (APV).The basic physical properties of this vacuum have been examined above.The PVM, i.e., the physical vacuum of matter, and the PVA, i.e., the physical vacuum of antimatter, are formed as a result of the division of fitons of the APV into two halves, or two Terletskiy dyads.

One must hypothesize that in some way unknown to us, the particles of half-fitons of the PVM and the half-fitons of the PVA are grouped into some media – “vacuum crystals” – which occupy individual local regions of space in the unbounded space of the Universe, which is filled with the APV medium.It is in just this sense that the non-homogeneity of the physical vacuum is understood in this model.

On the strength of the properties considered above for the particles – antiparticles of the right and left worlds, the half-fitons of the PVA and the PVM in the absence of fields are also neutral in both macroscopic and microscopic senses, like the APV.It is easy to observe that a half-fiton of the PVM includes a particle of the right world, i.e., a real particle, while a half-fiton of the PVA includes an antiparticle of the right worlds, i.e., a real antiparticle.For just this reason, we call the PVM the physical vacuum of matter (but not Matter) and the PVA the physical vacuum of antimatter (but not Antimatter, since Matter is a unity).

2.2.3. Basic properties of physical vacuums of matter and antimatter

The polarizations of the PVM and the PVA, in contrast to the APV, prove to be strongly related in pairs: electrical and gravitational, and magnetic and spin.Under the action of an electrical field on the PVM and the PVA, a gravitational as well as an electrical polarization develops, while under the effect of a gravitational field, these two polarizations also emerge.Under the effect of a magnetic field, a spin as well as a magnetic polarization develops, while under the effect of a spin field, these two polarizations also develop.The indicated features of the PVM and PVA become obvious when one considers the half-fiton of the PVM (Fig. 2- left) and the half-fiton of the PVA (Fig. 2 – right), if one starts from the particle – antiparticle properties discussed above.

At the same time, one can also see the fundamental difference between the PVM and the PVA.Under the effect of a certain field, the accompanying polarization has the same orientation as the polarization of the type like the field in the case of the PVM.In the case of the PVA, the accompanying polarization has an orientation opposite to that of the polarization of the type like field.

2.2.4. Circulation of matter in the Universe

Based on the model of the PV as consisting of particles-antiparticles of right and left worlds, one can obtain a schematic model of the Universe in which matter develops from the PV and disappears in it.The starting point of such a model is a refined definition of matter:matter is that which has positive mass; i.e., it includes normal (observable) particles and antiparticles with positive masses.As already stated above (Fig. 2), the PVM consists of these particles, while the PVA consists of antiparticles, provided, of course, the APV is set aside.Consequently, matter in the sense specified above can appear as a result of the decomposition of both the PVM and the PVA.In the former case, particles with positive masses should appear, while in the latter, antiparticles, also with positive masses, should appear.However, since antimatter is an exception in the observable Universe, the idea arises that the reactions associated with the PVM and the PVA occur in different ways.

The PVM decays with a specific relaxation time into the particles +m, +q, +s, +u and -m, -q, -s, -u. If nuclear reactions in which antiparticles are generated are excluded from consideration, one must reject the hypothesis of the decomposition of the PVA. The PVA, on the contrary, in some way unknown to us, collects from the APV the stray particles +m, +q, +s, +µ and -m, -q, -s, -u which appear as a result of the decomposition of the PVM and restores the quadrigues of the APV.The circulation of matter occurs in this way.

Figure 3 shows a Terletskiy particle-antiparticle quadrigue (at the top), a dyad of particles of the PVM (left), a dyad of particles of the PVA (right) and individual particles of matter of the right world – ordinary particles – and particles of the left world (with negative mass).The arrows indicate the following transformations:1 – the separation of PVM particles from the Terletskiy quadrigue; 2 – the separation of PVA particles from the Terletskiy quadrigue; 3 – the separation of particles of matter from the PVM dyads; 4 – the separation of particles of the left world from the PVM dyads; 5 and 6 – the combination of particles of matter and particles of the left world with PVA particles into a Terletskiy quadrigue; 7 – the end of the cycle of the transformation of matter.

Based on the diagram of Figure 3, one can present the following picture of the circulation of matter in the Universe.Particles (dyads) of the PVM and particles (dyads) of the PVA are generated from the APV as a result of the strong energy effect in the stars.They are collected separately into local formations, which are identified in this study with natural self-luminous formations.Hence two types of self-luminous formations must exist; these may provisionally be called PVM and PVA formations.

Both these types of formations should disappear outside the places where they are generated.Substance, mainly in the form of hydrogen, should be formed around the PVM formations at the expense of the dyads.The PVA formations, on the other hand, should lose their dyads as a result of their connection with particles of substance and particles -m, -q, -s, -µ of the left world.In this case, Terletskiy quadrigues, i.e., the APV, should develop.

2.3. Equations of a macroscopic model of combined electrogravidynamics

2.3.1. Equations of Maxwell and Heaviside in the polarization-field conception of the physical vacuum

The ideas of electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin polarizations and fields of the PV considered above give rise to a combined model of electrogravidynamics.It is natural that the electromagnetic part of this model should be based on Maxwell electrodynamics.As we know [58], this theory was developed based on the analysis of extensive experimental data.The area of its applicability ends at dimensions less than 10-13 cm, i.e., at the distances of the effect of nuclear forces [53].

Three conditions are of fundamental importance in electrodynamics:

1. Linearity of the basic equations of Maxwell;
2. Equilibrium, on the whole, of positive and negative electrical charges;
3. Covariance of the equations of Maxwell relative to the group of Lorentz transformations.

The linearity of the basic equations of Maxwell makes it possible to use the principle of superposition of potentials and fields.The superposition principle, in turn, forms the basis for theories of electrical and magnetic polarizations.

If the electrical charges in space were not, on the whole, in balance, Maxwell’s theory would lose its physical content in connection with the divergence of the sums and integrals for the potentials.In this case, it would be impossible to determine the electrical and magnetic forces.

Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR) developed in connection with problems of electrodynamics and, after receiving experimental substantiation, took on independent importance.In particular, the group of Lorentz transformations used in electrodynamics received physical substantiation: transformations of coordinates, fields, polarizations and currents-charges [58].

In the polarization-field conception of the PV, electrical and magnetic polarizations of the PV can be incorporated in equations of Maxwell only in the way in which like polarizations of substance are incorporated.

In the gravitational part of the non-homogeneous PV model, the gravitational and spin polarizations come to the forefront.Therefore, the first fundamental condition of electrodynamics must be extended to the theory of gravitation selected as a component of the model in question; i.e., it must be linear.

In connection with the questions being examined, it is impossible to move past the recognized theory of gravitation – Einstein’s general theory of relativity.This theory is nonlinear.However, the theory of regular stars with a mass not exceeding 100 times the mass of the Sun does not require the theory of relativity [63].In other words, linearized equations of Einstein’s GTR, which is what the D’Alambert wave equations in potentials are [73], can be used to describe the gravitational processes in the vicinity of the Sun.Newton’s law of gravity follows from one such equation.D’Alambert’s equations are unsuitable for incorporating the polarizations of the PV.Therefore, it is necessary to take another step – to switch to equations of gravitation similar to the equations of Maxwell, i.e., to relationships expressed through fields.This transition is familiar as the Maxwellization of the equations of the GTR [74].Theoretically one can incorporate gravitational and spin polarizations of the PV in such equations.As early as 23 years before Einstein’s GTR, however, Heaviside proposed equations of gravitation similar to the equations of Maxwell [47].These equations conform well to a number of laws and principles of physics.Therefore, one can go directly to the equations of Heaviside, thus bypassing the GTR.

However, there is a great difference between the GTR and Heaviside’s theory, in that the former relates to a limited Universe, while the latter relates to an unlimited Universe.Therefore, in Heaviside’s theory, as in Newton’s theory, there arises the problem of the gravitational potential discrepancy, i.e., the problem of the gravity paradox in a limitless Universe filled with matter [63].However, this difficulty occurs only in a case where the existence of matter with, and only with, positive mass is assumed.

If we start from Shipov’s ideas [53], which state the equality of positive and negative masses in the Universe, the objections related to the gravity paradox are removed at once in Heaviside’s (and Newton’s) theory of gravity.The fundamental condition of the equality of positive and negative masses appears in Heaviside gravidynamics and is equivalent to the fundamental condition of the equality of positive and negative electrical charges in electrodynamics.

Based on the recognition of the STR as a theory for general application, it is necessary to extend the group of Lorentz transformations to the Heaviside equations as well.In particular, it is necessary to accept the speed gravity waves as equal to the speed of light, assuming mass to be a relativistic invariant.

One can demonstrate that the connection of the Heaviside theory and the STR (in the form of the Minkowski theory) results in the modern Lorentz-covariant theory of attraction (LCTA), for which Streltsov provided substantiation [59].The only difference is in the fact that the equations of the LCTA are represented by potentials in the form of linear wave equations of D’Alambert. (relativistic equations of Poisson), while the Heaviside equations are represented by fields.It is just this difference, however, which is of fundamental importance in the case of the polarization-field conception of the PV.One can incorporate the polarizations of the PV in the linear field equations of Heaviside as simply as in the linear field equations of Maxwell.

Hence all three fundamental conditions of electrodynamics also become valid in the Heaviside theory, if relativistically invariant masses are substituted for relativistically invariant charges in this case.

A large number of parameters characterizing the state of the PV, greatly exceeding the number of parameters in electrodynamics, emerge in this macroscopic model of the non-homogeneous PV.In this connection, the need arising for introducing a certain uniformity in the designations of related physical variables and for establishing a correspondence of names to alphabetical designations.In equations of Maxwell, it is advisable to reject even the customary induction and polarization designations which have become international.

The following designations are employed hereinafter for the case of isotropic PV and substance: For fields: E – electrical; M’ – magnetic; G – gravitational; S – spin.For polarizations of the PV: PEFV – electrical; PMFV – magnetic; PGFV – gravitational; PSFV – spin.For polarizations of substance: PEK – electrical; PMK – magnetic; PGK – gravitational; PSK – spin.In addition, the following designations are introduced:pE – the density of electrical charges of the substance; pG – the density of gravitational masses of matter; JEM = pE · v – the density of electrical current of the substance; JG = pG · v – the density of gravitational current of the substance; v – the velocity of electrical or gravitational current carriers.In a case of movement of an electrical point charge q:JE = vqS(r – rq); in the case of movement of point gravitational mass m: JG = vmS(r – rm); S(r – rm) is the S-function; rq and rm are vector-radii of the trajectory of movement of the electrical charge and the gravitational mass, respectively; r is the current vector-radius; v = drq/dt = drm/dt.

The equations of Maxwell in the model in question (in the polarization-field conception of the PV) have the following from [58]:

where the designations indicated above have been used; µ0 is the magnetic constant or magnetic permeability of the vacuum.

In the case of the absolute PV: PE = D; PEK = P; PEFV = e0E, where D is electrical induction; P is electrical polarization of substance; e0 is the electrical constant or electrical permitivity of the vacuum; M’ = u0H (M’ – magnetic field); PM = B/m0; PMK = M (M – magnetization); PMFV = H, where B is magnetic induction; H is the magnetic field in the APV.In this case, the equations of Maxwell take on the customary form (in the system of MKSA and SI units) [30]:

The equations of Heaviside in the model in question have the following form [3, 74, 75]:

where designations indicated above have been used; s0 is the spin constant or spin permeability of the vacuum.

In the case of the APV: PGFV = g0G; PSFV = s0-1S, where g0 = (4 Pi G)-1; G = 6.672 · 10-11 m3 · kg-1 · c-2 – is the gravitational constant, and cG= (g0s0)-1/2 = c is the speed of gravity waves in a vacuum, which is equal to the speed of light in a vacuum.The values of the constants and the dimensions of the variables in the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside are presented in Table 2.

One can see from Table 2 and from the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside that JG is the density of the quantity of motion or the density of impulses, i.e., the vector sum of the quantity of motion in a unit of volume; PE is the sum of densities of electrical dipoles of the PV and substance; PG is the sum of densities of gravitational dipoles of the PV and substance; PM is the sum of densities of magnetic moments of the PV and substance; PS is the sum of densities of moments of quantities of motion (spins) of the PV and substance; E is the acceleration multiplied by the factor 1 kg/Kl; G is the acceleration; M’ is the angular frequency multiplied by the factor 1 kg/Kl; S is the angular frequency.Hence a correspondence is established between the names and the physical natures of the polarization dimensions.The fields E, G, M’ and S have mechanical dimensions, which reveals their direct relationships to forces and mechanical moments.

2.3.2. Equations of Maxwell and Heaviside as a combination of laws of matter and the physical vacuum

The equations of Maxwell were created based on experimentally established laws of electromagnetism.Both laws related to the PV (almost all such laws: Faraday, Ampere, Coulomb, radiation, etc.) and laws not related to it (the law of the preservation of electrical charges) follow naturally from them.The situation is more complicated with respect to equations of Heaviside.They include only two experimentally established physical laws: Newton’s law of gravity and the law of the preservation of gravitational mass.The latter, however, requires special consideration, especially in connection with the relativistic problems of gravitational, inert and rest masses.All other laws which follow from the equations of Heaviside still require their own experimental confirmation.The polarization-field conception of the PV introduces its own extremely important refinements to the laws of the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside.The physical effects on which the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside are based are considered systematically below.

Coulomb’s Law in nonrelativistic approximation

When a point electrical charge pE = q1 S(r – rq) is located in the APV, according to (1), there emerges an electrical field

where rq is a vector, the origin of which is located at the point of the location of the electrical charge q1, while the end is at the point of observation of the field; rq is the absolute length of the vector rq.

The force acting on a point electrical charge q2 located at the field observation point is expressed as follows:

The relationship (13) obviously expressed Coulomb’s Law.If the electrical charges q1 and q2 are positive, they repel each other.

Newton’s Law of Gravity in nonrelativistic approximation

When a point gravitational mass pG = m1 S (r – rm) is located in the APV, according to (7), there emerges a gravitational field

where rm is a vector, the origin of which is located at the point of the location of the gravitational mass m1, while the end is at the point of observation of the field; rm is the absolute length of the vector rm.

The force acting on a point gravitational mass m2 located at the field observation point is expressed as follows:

The relationship (14) obviously expressed Newton’s Law of Gravity.If the gravitational masses q1 and q2 are positive, they attract each other.

It is easy to see that the replacement of the plus sign in equation (1) of Maxwell with the minus sign in equation (7) of Heaviside is of fundamental importance.

Law of preservation of electrical charge

The law of preservation of electrical charge follows from Maxwell equations (1) and (3) and has the following form:

This equation should be considered based on the condition of covariance of equations of Maxwell relative to Lorentz transformations.

Equation (15) is Lorentz-covariant; i.e., it remains unchanged in both a stationary system and any mobile reference system in the performance of Lorentz transformations for the density of the current JE and the density of the electrical charge pE of the form: pE = y(p’E + J’E1u/c2), JE1 = y(J’E1 + p’Eu), JE2 = J’E2, JE3 = J’E3, where y = (1 – u2/c2)-1/2.The primes in these equations relate to a stationary reference system (the mobile reference system moves at a rate u along axis 1).

In addition, the integral law of the preservation of electrical charge, according to which the total electrical charge Q in some limited region of space remains unchanged (is invariant) in any inertial reference system [58], is also fulfilled.

Law of conservation of gravitational mass

A relationship of the following form follows from Heaviside equations (7) and (9):

This relationship can at once be called the law of the preservation of gravitational mass in connection with the fact that the masses included in the Heaviside equation have a direct relationship to Newton’s Law of Gravity.In considering this question, as in the case of equations of Maxwell, one must start with the condition of covariance of the equations of Heaviside relative to Lorentz transformations and the integral law of the preservation of gravitational mass.

Equations (16), like (15), is Lorentz-covariant.Hence the Lorentz transformation for it has precisely the same form as for equation (15); it is only necessary to change the E subscripts to G subscripts.The integral law of the preservation of gravitational mass leads to an unambiguous conclusion:the mass associated with the density pG must be the intrinsic mass; i.e., the rest mass.This mass specifically is a relativistic invariant in Minkowski’s theory [58].

Laws of neutrality of matter and the physical vacuum

In the Maxwell theory, the divergences of the electrical and magnetic polarizations of matter are the densities of the bond (polarization) electrical and magnetic charges of matter [31, 32].Similar definitions can extend to both the electrical and magnetic polarizations and to gravitational and spin polarizations of the PV.With such an approach, equations (1), (2), (5) and (6) of Maxwell and (7), (8), (11) and (12) of Heaviside take on the physical sense of the equality of the sums of free and bound electrical, magnetic and spin charges and gravitational masses of the PV and matter to zero at each point in space.

In particular, it follows from Maxwell equations (1) and (5) that pEFV + pEK + pE = 0 , (17)

where pEK = -div PEK is the density of bound charges of the electrical dipoles of matter [30]; pEFV = -div PEFV, by analogy, is the density of bound charges of the electrical dipoles of the PV.

It follows from Heaviside equations (7) and (11) that pGFV + pGK + pG = 0, (18)

where pGFV = div PGFV is the density of bound masses of the gravitational dipoles of the PV; pGK = div PGK is the density of bound masses of the gravity dipoles of matter [3, 75].It is taken into account in the definitions of pGFV and pGK that there is a minus sign at the masses in the equations of Heaviside where there is a plus sign at the electrical charges in the equations of Maxwell.

It follows from Maxwell equations (2) and (6) that pMFV + p MK = 0 , (19)

where pMFV = -div PMFV is the density of bound magnetic charges of the PV; pMK = -div PMK is the density of bound magnetic charges of matter.

It follows from Heaviside equations (8) and (12) that pSVFV + pSK = 0, (20)

where pSFV = +div PSFV is the density of bound spin charges of the PV; pSK = +div PSK is the density of bound spin charges of matter.

The fact that the free and bound charges and gravitational masses of the PV and matter in the polarization-field conception of the PV of (17)-(20) are equal to zero can be called the laws of total neutrality of matter and the PV.One must remember that these laws have physical sense for macro-objects.

Laws of continuity of total electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin currents

The Maxwell equations (3) and (4) can now be represented as follows:

In the polarization-field conception of the PV, the bias currents, electrical, magnetic, gravitational and spin, of matter and the PV are polarization currents, and, in this sense, they do not differ from the electrical polarization bias current in matter.Hence all eight bias currents take on a specific physical sense, while in the field conception of the PV, even the bias electrical current in a vacuum is an abstract concept.

The relationships for current densities (21)-(24) include four variables – JEA, JMA, JGA, JSA – which are associated with the properties of the PV.These variables have a relationship only to the manifestations of material but not matter – to four fields, in this case:E, M’, G, S.The basic property of these currents is reflected in obvious relationships: div JEA == 0; div JGA == 0; div JMA == 0; div JSA == 0.Consequently, according to the Ostrogrdskiy-Gauss theorem:

where S is a closed surface; dS is the vector-differential of this surface.

The relationship (27) expressed the law of the continuity of total current in the theory of electromagnetism [30].The relationships (25), (26) and (28), by analogy, can also be called laws of the continuity of total gravitational, magnetic and spin currents, respectively, and the currents JEA, JMA, JGA, JSA can be called the total currents of the respective descriptions.

Hence in this model of the PV, the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside appear as a combination of relationships expressing the physical, macroscopic laws of matter and the PV.In the case of the absence of matter in the space in question (pE = 0; pG = 0; pEK = 0; pGK = 0; pMK = 0; pSK = 0; JE = 0; JG = 0), the relationships (17)-(20), (21)-(24) and (25)-(28) do not lose their physical content and represent macroscopic laws of the PV as a material medium.In this case, the laws

pEFV = 0 ; (29)
pGFV = 0 ; (30)
pMFV= 0 ; (31)
pSFV = 0 ;(32)

express the absolute neutrality of the PV in the absence of matter. The PV remains in the neutral state under the effects of all fields: in the propagation of electromagnetic and gravitational waves, in particular.

In this case, the laws JMA = JEFV ; (33)
JEA = – JMFV ; (34)
JSA = JGFV ; (35)
JGA = -JSFV ;(36)

express excitation of the PV by fields in the absence of matter.

Hence in this conception of the PV, all the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside appear as a set of the physical laws considered above reflecting the electromagnetic and gravitational properties of two media at the macro-level:the PV and matter.One must also keep in mind the laws of the superposition of like fields, which are a consequence of the linearity of the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside, in a number of laws of electromagnetism and gravispinorics.

2.3.3. Polarizations of the physical vacuum as a function of fields

The dependencies of the polarizations of the absolute PV, the PVM and the PVA on fields differ, as one can see from the previous examination.

In particular, the polarizations for the APV depend only on their own fields and have the following form (Fig. 1):

PE = PEFV = e0 E; (37)
PM = PMFV = w0 M’ ;(38)
PG = PGFV = v0 G ; (39)
PS = PSFV = t0 S,(40)

where w0 = u0-1; v0 = g0; t0 = s0-1.

For the PVM and PVA, the electrical and gravitational polarizations and the magnetic and spin polarizations are related (Fig. 2).These connections can be expressed in the form of the following two equations:

In (41) and (41), the plus sign pertains to the case of the PVM, while the minus sign pertains to the PVA.

Since the electrical and gravitational polarizations of the PV are proportionate to he force mG+qE, in light of (41), one can obtain two expressions for these polarizations:

PEFV = e0 E + y0 G ; (43)
PGFV = v0 G + y0 E ;(44)

where a plus sign must be attributed to the coefficient y0 in the case of the PVM, with a minus sign for the PVA.

Assuming that the magnetic and spin polarizations of the PV are proportionate to the force vector uM’+sS, in light of (42), one can obtain two more similar expressions for the magnetic and spin polarizations:

where the coefficient l0 has a plus sign in the case of the PVM and a minus sign in the case of the PVA.

2.3.4. Problems of combined electrogravidynamics

Hence in the case of the filling of space by the APV, the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside, according to (37)-(40), prove unrelated.In this case, the polarization-field and field conceptions of the PV produce indistinguishable results, and the equations of Maxwell (1)-(6) and Heaviside (7)-(12) can easily be converted to a form familiar in the literature.

As already stated above, it is suggested that the PVM and the PVA occupy local regions of space, while the space outside these regions is filled by the APV.One can also assume that mixtures of PVM or PVA with the APV are present in local regions of space.These regions of space are called VD [6].In the regions of space occupied by the VD, the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside (1)-(12) prove to be related according to (43)-(46).Hence joint problems of electrodynamics and gravidynamics emerge.In these problems, the coefficients g0 and l0 must be represented by finite functions of the three-dimensional coordinates x, y and z and the time t (for describing the movement and deformations of the local regions in space).In a region of space outside the VD, it should be assumed that y0 = 0 and l0 = 0.

As one can see from the preceding analysis, the coefficients e0, v0, w0, t0 have strictly defined numerical values in the APV.However, in regions of space filled with VD, these coefficients can be functions of the coordinates and time.

A full statement of the problems of the electrogravidynamics of the PV also assumes the specification of the fields external to the VD, one of four or their combinations, as both constant and variable, in the form of incident waves (electromagnetic or gravispin), for example.The target functions are the polarizations and fields induced.The induced polarizations make it possible to determine the forces acting on the VD.

The VD penetrate into matter (air of the atmosphere, water, solids).However, while the APV does not interact directly with matter, the PVM and PVA in the form of VD do interact directly with it.This interaction of the VD and matter is of the same kind of major scientific interest as the interaction of the VD with fields.A detailed mathematical description of the members of equations of electrodynamics (1)-(12) reflecting the properties of the matter is necessary for describing the interaction in question.

We shall mention here that the form of the equations of combined electrogravidynamics (1)-(12) and (43)-(46) presented above is close to the physical essence of the equations of Maxwell and Heaviside.However, it is unusual and can cause difficulties in the performance of practical calculations of the physical processes in the VD and associated with the VD.Therefore, the traditional form of the equations in question which was adopted for the field conception of the PV is used below.

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# 2.4. Equations of a macroscopic model of combined electrogravidynamics for practical calculations

to be continued in the original file …